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Articles by M. Danesh Mesgaran
Total Records ( 11 ) for M. Danesh Mesgaran
  M.A. Maghoul , H. Nassiri Moghadam , H. Kermanshahi and M. Danesh Mesgaran
  An in vivo experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine supplementation (Betafine) as a replacement for choline on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. The diets containing four betaine levels at 0, 33, 66 and 100% in replacement for choline and tow basal diets (containing of 2.5% oil and lacking of oil) were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with a 2x4 factorial arrangement and four replicates of 10 birds/replicate. Three hundred twenty-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed in cages and fed the experimental diets from 0-49 days of age. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. At 49 days of age, one bird from each replicate was selected for blood sample collection and comparison of carcass characteristics. Betaine replacement for choline had no effect on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio but, a significant different (p<0.05) in body weight gain (at 0-3 and 3-6 weeks of age) and feed conversion ratio (at 0-3 weeks of age) was observed among different treatments. Betaine as a replacement for choline increased the breast weight and reduced the abdominal fat (p<0.05), but had no significant effect on thigh, liver, fat of liver percentages and blood parameters. The present findings indicated that although replacement of betaine instead of choline in diets of broiler didn’t improved significantly feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, percentage of carcass characteristics and blood parameters, but resulted in significant reduction of abdominal fat and significant increase of breast meat.
  M. Mazhari , M. Danesh Mesgaran and A. Heravi Moussavi
  In situ degradable parameters and ruminal and post ruminal disappearances of Dry Matter (DM) and Crude Protein (CP) of a variety of Iranian rapeseed meal (SLM sp.) were determined. Then, 14 early lactating Holstein cows for 8 weeks were fed diets containing 10.95% Soybean Meal (SBM) or 10.85% Rapeseed Meal (RSM) in a completely randomized design with repeat measurement analysis. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition were measured weekly. Blood metabolites including glucose and non amino-N were measured in weeks 1, 4, 6 and 8. Feces pH was monitored at weeks 4 and 8. Degradable coefficients of RSM including rapidly, slowly and Fractional degradation rate, were 0.32, 0.49 and 0.092 for DM and 0.33, 0.58 and 0.12 for CP, respectively. Ruminal and post ruminal disappearance of DM and CP were 0.68, 0.52 and 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. Dry matter intake (kg/cow/day) was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the diets (RSM = 19.9, SBM = 20.5, SEM = 0.21). Milk protein and milk solid non-fat of cows fed RSM (28.88 and 86.03, respectively) were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with animals fed SBM (27.63 and 81.8, respectively). Milk fat, lactose and urea nitrogen, fecal pH and BCS were all similar between diets (p>0.05). Data of the present experiment indicated that the Iranian variety of RSM might be used in high producing lactating Holstein cows without any adverse effect.
  M. Vatandoost , M. Danesh Mesgaran , R. Valizadeh and H. Nasiri Moghaddam
  Whole Crop Corn (WCC), Triticale (WCT) and Barley (WCB) were harvested, chopped and ensiled with urea (15 g kg 1 DM) for 45 days. pH of WCT Silage (WCTS) and WCB Silage (WCBS) was similar, but, significantly differed from WCC Silage (WCCS) (p< 0.05). Crud Protein (CP) (WCCS = 67.2, WCTS = 112.4 and WCBS = 96.4 g kg 1. DM), Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN), (WCCS = 6/84, WCTS = 16.85 and WCBS = 15.04 mg dL 1) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), (WCCS = 436, WCTS = 497 and WCBS = 470 g kg 1 DM) were significantly different between treatments (p< 0.05). The results of the incubation of WCCS, WCTS and WCBS using nylon bag technique showed that quickly degradable fraction (a) of Dry Matter (DM) was relatively high for WCTS (0.37±0.01) and intermediate for WCBS (0.32±0.02) and lowest for WCCS (0.24±0.01). Whereas, the slowly fraction (b) for WCTS (0.44±0.02) and WCBS (0.52±0.04) was similar and higher than WCCS (0.54±0.02). The constant fractional rate of degradation (c) of CP for the silages was similar (0.02). In this experiment, the effect of replacing WCCS with WCTS or WCBS on feeding the lactating cows was also investigated. Fifteen Holstein lactating cows (37.1±4.9 kg milk/d) were used in a completely randomized design for 6 weeks. Data were analyzed as repeated measures in time. Cows fed diet containing WCBS had higher feed intake than the cows of the other groups (p< 0.05). Milk yield and component (protein, lactose, Urea Nitrogen (MUN) and total solid milk) were not affected significantly by the treatments. Blood glucose in mid and end of the experiment in each sampling time (0.0 and 4 h) after feeding was not affected by the treatments, but, this metabolite decreased at the 4 h after feeding. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) in the mid the (4 h) and end of the experiment (before feeding) was significantly affected by treatments (p< 0.05).
  A.R.Vakili , M. Danesh Mesgaran , A. Heravi Moussavi , R.Valizadeh and M. R. Nassiry
  The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal peptide and ammonia nitrogen concentrations and Crude Protein (CP) degradation in Holstein steers fed diets differing in concentrate to alfalfa hay ratios. Four rumen fistulated Holstein steers (216±27 kg, body weight) with were used. Animals fed 7 kg of Dry Matter (DM) of diets differing in concentrate (155 g CP kg 1 of DM; 30% maize, 34% barley, 8% soybean meal, 5% sugar beet pulp, 10% wheat bran, 12% cottonseed meal, 0.3% CaCo3, 0.5% mineral and vitamin premix, 0.2% salt) to alfalfa hay (155 g CP kg 1 of DM ) ratios as 60:40 (C60:L40), 70:30 (C70:L30), 80:20 (C80:L20) and 90:10 (C90:L10) in a 44 Latin square design (28 days of each period). Steers fed the experimental diets as total mixed ration twice daily at 0800 and 2000 h. Ruminal fluid was taken, by suction, via rumen fistula on days 24 to 28 of each period. Then, pH and NH3-N, soluble protein-N and peptide-N concentrations were determined. In addition, in situ CP and DM degradation kinetics of various feeds (alfalfa hay, barley grain, soybean meal and fish meal) were determined. Ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentration were significantly affected by the treatments and sampling time (p< 0.05). Ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentration decreased from 6.48 (C60:L40) and 19.86 (C70:L30) to 5.86 (C90:L10) and 14.81 (C90:L10), respectively, when level of concentrate was increased from 60 to 90% (p< 0.05). Results indicated that the ruminal peptide-N and soluble protein-N concentrations were not significantly influenced by the diets and sampling time. In steers fed a high concentrate:alfalfa hay ratios (C80:L20), ruminal peptide-N concentration was lower than those fed C60:L40 and C70:L30. In general, ruminal soluble protein-N was high in samples taken before feeding, intermediate at 6 h and low at 4 h after feeding. The results showed that the DM and CP degradation parameters of the feeds evaluated in the present experiment are influenced by the diet composition. It was concluded that the extent of ruminal CP degradation was affected by rumen pH.
  F. Rezaii , M. Danesh Mesgaran , A.R. Heravi Moussavi and M.H. Fathi Nasri
  The effect of different Effective Rumen Degradable Protein (ERDP) to Fermentable Metabolizable Energy (FME) on early lactating cow responses was investigated. Total tract digestibility of organic matter of various feedstuffs including barely grain, corn grain, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp, alfalfa hay, cotton seeds, corn silage and fish meal was determined using in situ technique. These data were used to predict FME of the feedstuffs. Two diets were provided with different ERDP/FME ratio (9.7 and 10.7 g MJ 1). The diets fed to fourteen early lactating Holstein cows averaging 2116 Days In Milk (DIM) and 329 Kg d 1 milk yield for seven weeks, using a completely randomized design. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured weekly. Blood metabolites including glucose and urea nitrogen were measured in weeks 4 and 7. Rumen fluid NH3-N was recorded in the 3rd week of the experiment. Dry matter intake was significantly (p< 0.05) lower for cows fed diet with ERDP/FME = 9.7 g MJ 1 than those fed ERDP/FME = 10.7 g MJ 1 (21 vs. 21.6, respectively). Milk yield was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in cows fed ERDP/FME = 9.7 g MJ 1 compared with those fed ERDP/FME = 10.7 g MJ 1 (35.2 vs. 32.3, respectively). Milk composition, blood metabolites and rumen fluid NH3-N were not significantly affected by the treatments (p>0.05).
  A. Heravi Moussavi , M. Danesh Mesgaran , A. Soleimani and T. Vafa
  The study was designed to test the effect of supplemental Fish Meal (FM) on first 60 days cumulative milk production, interval to postpartum inseminations, number of days open, follicular dynamic and complete blood counts in early lactating Holstein cows. From 21 days before predicted calving time to 35 day in milk (DIM), cows were fed diets containing none (control) or 3.5 and 1.95% fish meal during prepartum and postpartum periods. Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and provide similar amounts of NEL and NFC using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Ovarian follicular dynamics were monitored using a 7.5 MHz rectal transducer. The first 60 days cumulative milk production and 305 days adjusted milk yield were similar among the diets. Number of follicles, maximum diameter of 1st dominant follicle on day 10 and 14 postpartum, number of days until dominant follicle detection and number of days until detection of a follicle 10 mm were not different between the diets. The interval from calving to 1st, 2nd and 3rd inseminations and also number of days open were all similar among the dietary groups. Complete blood counts were similar in week preceding calving. Except than neutrophils (2374 and 4181551, respectively) which tended to be significant (p = 0.06), other blood cells were not affected by diet. Results from this experiment demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish meal from -21 to 35 day postpartum had no effect on milk yield, follicular dynamic and complete blood count.
  M. Kazemi , A.M. Tahmasbi , R. Valizadeh , M. Danesh Mesgaran and A.A. Naserian
  An experiment was carried out to evaluate the substitution of Barley distillers' Grains (BG) ensiled by different level molassed sugar Beet Pulp (BP) with of corn silage on milk production and health of dairy cows. A total 18 Holstein dairy cows (86±10 days postpartum 600±20 kg BW), were randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (repeated measures). Three diets were formulated to evaluate the replacement of 30% corn silage by an ensiled mixture of BG with and without BP. Treatments were an ensiled mixture of 60% BG with 40% BP (BGBP40%), an ensiled mixture of 80% BG with 20% BP (BGBP20%) and BG ensiled without BP (BGBP0%). Experimental diets contained, 40% forage (60:40, corn silage: Alfalfa hay) and 60% concentrate. Cows were fed a total mixed ration and milked 3 times daily. Diet concentrations of NDF, ADF and CP were 33.2, 19.6 and 16.4% DM (for BGBP40%), 33.7, 20 and 16.8% DM (for BGBP 20%) and 33.8, 20.5 and 16.8% DM (BGBP 0%), respectively. The feed intakes, daily milk yield and milk composition were not significantly different between treatments. There was no significant effect of treatments on rumen pH and NH3-N. Also, there was no significant effect on blood plasma metabolites. Partial substitution BG ensiled with or without BP for corn silage did not have any negative effect on the performance of Holstein dairy cows.
  M. Danesh Mesgaran , H. Jahani-Azizabadi and A.R. Heravi Moussavi
  Ruminal, post-ruminal and total tract crude protein disappearance of cottonseed meal containing 105 (CSMH) or 65 (CSML) g oil per kg of dry matter (DM), soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM) and sunflower meal (SFM), originating from Iranian plant varieties, were measured using in situ mobile bag, three-step in situ/in vitro (3-step) and in vitro enzymatic procedures. For the in situ mobile bag technique, 4 Holstein steers (45050 kg, body weight) fitted with ruminal fistulae and T-shaped intestinal cannulae were used. Three-step procedure was followed by rumen incubation of samples for 12 h and enzymatic incubation of ruminal undegradable samples. In vitro enzymatic technique was followed by 1 h borate- phosphate buffer incubation, then 4 h in protease solution as ruminal disappearance and enzymatic (pepsin and pancreatin) incubation of ruminal undegradable samples. A significant (p<0.01) effect was found between the procedures to measure ruminal, post-ruminal and total tract CP disappearance. The protein disappearance of oilseed meals in the rumen and post-rumen determined in vitro enzymatic procedure tended to be higher than 3-step technique. Post-ruminal protein disappearance measured with in vitro procedure was higher (p<0.01) than in situ mobile bag and 3-step techniques (In vitro = 0.75, In situ mobile bag = 0.74 and 3-step = 0.60; S.E.M = 0.023, respectively). There was a significant (p<0.01) effect of feeds on ruminal, post-ruminal and total tract CP disappearance. The CSMH had a lower (p<0.01) ruminal CP disappearance, while the SFM had higher value (0.58 and 0.91, respectively). The CSMH had lower ruminal CP disappearance compared with CSML (0.58 vs. 0.68, respectively). The CSML had a lower (p<0.01) post-ruminal CP disappearance, while the SBM had higher value (0.59 and 0.81, respectively). In addition, our results indicated that when used to assess post-ruminal disappearance of oilseed meal protein, the 3-step method can underestimate the disappearance of protein.
  T. Mohammadabadi , M. Danesh Mesgaran , A.R. Heravi Moussavi , M.R. Nasiri and M. Chaji
  The objective of this study was to determine in situ dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability of sunflower meal containing 25 and 165 g fat kg-1 DM and untreated and treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 40 g kg-1 DM) and formaldehyde ( 30 and 60 g kg-1 DM). DM and CP degradation of the samples were determined using in situ technique in two fistulated Holstein steers (40012 kg, body weight) and data were analysed to estimate soluble fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction (b), degradation rate (c) and effective degradability (ED). Formaldehyde decreased (a) fraction of DM (p<0.05). NaOH treated high fat sunflower meal had the highest (a) fraction and the lowest of (b) fraction of DM, (0.43 and 0.31, respectively). Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly decreased degradation rate (c) of DM. Formaldehyde (30 g kg-1 DM) treated low fat sunflower meal had the lowest ED of DM (0.44, k = 0.03 h 1) (p<0.05). Fraction of (a) and ED of DM of low fat sunflower meal was less than high fat sunflower meal. Formaldehyde and NaOH significantly were affected fractions of a, b, c and ED of CP (p<0.05). Fraction of (a) of CP decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Treatment of sunflower meal (low and high fat) with formaldehyde at 60 g kg-1 DM resulted in the highest (b) fraction and the lowest of (c) fraction and ED of CP. Crude protein (b) fraction of low fat sunflower meal was more than high fat sunflower meal but there was not any significant difference for (a) fraction and ED. DM and CP disappearance after 24 h was decreased by formaldehyde and NaOH. Therefore, it is appears that formaldehyde, NaOH and fat content of sunflower meal can affect DM and CP degradability parameters.
  T. Mohammadabadi , M. Danesh Mesgaran and M. Chaji
  This trial was conducted to determine the effect of diets containing treated alfalfa silage with hydrochloric acid (HCl) (12 g kg-1 DM) or anionic salts (7.51% Sulfate, 29.8% Chloride, 11.49% Calcium and 2.98% Magnesium) on pH and mineral concentration (Ca, P, Cl, Mg, Na and K) of blood and urine of Holstein close-up dairy cows. In addition, milk yield and retained placenta after parturition (6 weeks) were recorded. Treatments were; Basal Diet (BD; corn silage (17 kg), alfalfa hay (2.4 kg), wheat straw (0.7 kg) and concentrate (5.5 kg)), HCl treated alfalfa silage (12 g kg-1 DM) substituted of alfalfa hay in basal diet (BDH) and basal diet + anionic salts mixture (BDA, 300 g/head/d). Experimental diets were fed to 12 Holstein dry cows (n = 4) during 18-33 days before calving. Animals were fed individually in tie stall as ad libitum. Feed intake was recorded daily and samples of blood (via jugular vein) and urine were taken at the pre and two weeks after the feeding. Samples were analyzed for pH and minerals concentrations. Results indicated that the effect of diets on urinary pH (7.06, 6.6 and 6.79 for treatments BD, BDH and BDA, respectively), blood pH and blood and urine minerals concentrations was not significant (p>0.05). Cows fed acidified diets had lower placenta excretion time (h) and more milk production than those of basal diet. It is concluded that blood and urine acid-base properties did not affected by the experimental diets when included by HCl or anionic salts.
  F. Rezaii , M. Danesh Mesgaran , A. Heravi Moussavi and M.R. Nassiry
  An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental Non-Fiber Carbohydrate (NFC) on disappearance kinetics of Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Neutral Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen (NDIN) of Wheat Bran (WB) by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Non-supplemented or NFC supplemented WB (70 mg NFC g 1 DM of WB as Sucrose (WBSu) or Starch (WBSt) or a 1:1 mixture of Sucrose + Starch (WBSuSt)) were incubated in bottles containing rumen fluid medium. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 16 and 48 h at 39?C. After each incubation time, NDF and NDIN disappearance of WB were measured. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design using a 4״ factorial arrangement. The 1st factor consisted of supplemental NFC type and the 2nd factor consisted of incubation time. Kinetic disappearance rate of all samples was determined using first order exponential model of D(t) = D(i).exp (-k2 time) + I; D(t) is potentially digestible residues; D(i) is potentially digestible fraction; k is fractional rate constant of disappearance (h-1) and I is indigestible fraction. In this experiment, Including of NFC in the fermentation medium had a significant (p<0.01) effect on the disappearance of NDF (0.48, 0.49, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively, for WB, WBSu, WBSt, WBSuSt) and NDIN (0.52, 0.58, 0.50 and 0.55, for WB, WBSu, WBSt, WBSuSt, respectively) of wheat bran. The fractional rate constant of NDF disappearance was greater (p<0.05) in both WBSt and WBSuSt samples compared with non-supplemented (0.06, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.12 h-1, for WB, WBSu, WBSt, WBSuSt, respectively). Also, indigestible fraction of NDF was greater (p<0.05) for treatments receiving starch or sucrose + starch as the source of supplemental NFC when compared with non-supplemented WB. However, when sucrose was added, the indigestible fraction of WB was similar with the non-supplemented sample. The fractional rate of NDIN disappearance in WB exhibited (p<0.05) an increase in response to adding the sucrose + starch supplement when compared with the non-supplemented WB and it was decreased when starch was added. Including of sucrose in the medium had no significant effect on fractional rate of NDIN disappearance. Indigestible fraction of NDIN was significantly increased when it was supplemented by starch or sucrose + starch (p<0.05).
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