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Articles by M. Ashraf
Total Records ( 21 ) for M. Ashraf
  M. Ehsan Akhtar , Aneela Sardar , M. Ashraf , Maqbool Akhtar and M. Zameer Khan
  A pot experiment was conduced in a glasshouse at the National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad to study the effect of application potash on boll weight, boll size and seed cotton yield in selected cotton varieties, namely CIM-443, CIM-109 and CIM-446 during summer 1999. Potash as MOP was applied @ 0, 100 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 along with basal application of N and P @ 150 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The results showed that boll weight and size increased significantly with increasing K2O levels of application and they were maximum at 200 kg K2O ha-1. However, no significant difference was observed in the boll size of different varieties. Seed cotton yield also increased significantly in all the varieties with increasing K2O. The magnitude of response was variable and maximum response was observed in case of CIM-446 followed by CIM-109 and CIM-443.
  Saqba Mahmood , Sara Zafar , M. Yasin Ashraf , G. Sarwar , M. Ashraf and M. Naeem
  Biochemical changes in resistant and susceptible cotton cultivars to leaf curl virus (CLCuV) were assessed by a series of laboratory experiments. The experiments were conducted in petri-dishes containing filter papers with sterile distilled water on which seeds of the cotton cultivars i.e. CIM-446, resistant and S-12 susceptible to CLCuV were sown, each cultivar have five replications and petri-dishes were kept in growth cabinet at 28± 2°C. The results showed that the growth attributes proved S-12 superior to CIM-446. But with respect to the biochemical attributes both the cultivars appear to use different biochemical attributes for their germination demands. Soluble sugars translocations and its concentrations were higher in CIM-446 than S-12. In all the three embryonic organs of germinating seeds, starch mobilization had also the same pattern of varietal difference, where CIM-446 had greater ratio of starch, more active enzyme (α-amylase), degrading starch and higher comparative ratio of the resultant product of starch degradation. This may provide better fulfillment of structural requirements to resist virus at vegetative growth stages by contributing readily available energy by active break down of starch and translocation of sugars which may play some role in the composition of antibodies or some other biochemical/physiological responses associated with starch and sugars.
  Sara Zafar , M. Yasin Ashraf and M. Ashraf
  Salinity (NaCl) induced changes in protease activities and associated metabolic changes in three cotton varieties (NIAB-Karishma, NIAB-86 and K-115) were studied during germination and early seedling stages under controlled conditions. The increase in salinity of the medium resulted in the decrease of protease activities in all varieties, however it was more pronounced in NIAB-86. Decrease in mobilization of reserve protein and reduced concentrations of total free amino acids with increasing salinity were recorded in all the cotton varieties. Variety K-115 showed better performance than others. It showed highest germination followed by NIAB-Karishma and NIAB-86. The variety K-115 also had higher to mobilization capacity and had higher levels of total free amino acids and less reserve protein during germination and early seedling growth stages.
  Rizwana Khursheed , Barkat Hussain , S.B. Ahmad and M. Ashraf
  Different developmental stages of Coccinella septumpunctata was observed that the egg, larval, pre-pupal and adult stages occupied more duration in first generation as compared to second, total larval period 16±1.73 days and pupal period, 7.5±0.87 days was more in first generation in contrast to second 13.5±0.87 days and 6.5±0.87 days, respectively. However, similar was the trend with respect to longevity of males and females.Adult stage of Coccinella septumpunctata consumed more aphids in both generations as compared to larval. Nevertheless, when a comparison was made, between larval instars, it was observed that older larvae consume more number of aphids/day than younger ones.
  Mansab A. Khokhar , M. Ashraf , A. Fatah Soomro and Shahzad Asad
  Twelve advanced exotic lines of soybean; AGS-194, NS-82-5250, Ciangman, Duiker, AGS-5, Sprito, Platte, Exp-15, Ocepar, PR-16, Decada and M-83-104 were tested for adaptability and high yield performance. Beans yield and their characteristics; days to maturity and plant height, pods per plant and 100-seeds weight, were significantly different among years and inter lines competition. An advanced line Sprito out yielded (> 3000 kg ha-1) compared to other lines, therefore, picked up for National Uniform Yield Trials for wider adaptability. Lines; PR-16, Decada, AGS-5 and Ciangman were the second highest performers with bean yield of 2500 to 3000 kg ha-1 and selected for Intermediate Yield Trials for further evaluation. Fortunately, two line; Duiker and Exp-15 showed early maturing characters that could be crossed with high yielding lines in near future breeding programme.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain , M. Ashraf , M.Y. Ashraf , Muhammad Yousaf , Muhammad Saeed Akhtar and Arshad Maqbool
  This article briefly describes common mineral imbalances affecting grazing ruminants at farms, their mineral requirements, factors affecting these requirements and different methods of detection of mineral status of the animal. The benefits and limitations of mineral analyses of soil, forage, animal tissues, and fluids samples for the purpose of identifying and preventing mineral disorders of grazing animals are discussed. The role of minerals as buffers, in immunity, as antioxidant and their bioavailability from various sources have also been described.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , M. Ashraf , M. Y. Ashraf , Z. Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  A study was conducted to determine the potassium status of lactating, non-lactating and male goats on farm located in Southern Punjab. A mineral supplement were available to all animals throughout the year. Soil, forage, water, feed and animal samples (blood plasma, milk, faeces, and urine) were taken 8 times fortnightly during winter and summer seasons. On the basis of results of analyses soil K+ was deficient for the requirements of plants during summer while forage K+ concentrations were below the critical values during both seasons. The contribution of feed K+ in maintaining the K+ level of animals was also not prominent. From plasma analyses it was found that K+ was below the normal levels in lactating and male goats during both seasons and in non-lactating goats only during summer. The loss of K+ through milk, faeces and urine was high during both seasons. Overall K+ status of these goats based on plasma concentrations may be considered inadequate mainly due to low forage K+ concentration which were found low to deficient. Key words: Potassium, status, goats, soil, forage, water, milk and plasma
  M. Irshad , M. Inoue , M. Ashraf and A. Al-Busaidi
  The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming. Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world’s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.
  Rahat Ali , M. Ashraf and Syed Muzaffar Hussain Bukhari
  Present study was initiated to evaluate the effect of Tylosin and Zinc Bacitracin (at low level) on weight gain and immune response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Broiler Chicks. For this purpose a 240-day-old chicks were divided into 3 groups, A (fed on Tylan Premix), B (fed on Albac) while C was non-medicated and non-vaccinated control group. These were further subdivided into two groups on the basis of vaccination against NDV. Results of this project revealed that low level feeding of Tylosin (Tylan Premix) and Zinc Bacitracin (Albac) did not interfere with development of the birds and their immune status.
  M. Ashraf , S. M. Muyassir Bukhari , Shoukat Ali Shahid and M. Arshad Azad
  Soil samples from 3-6 inches depth were collected at 8 different locations from Cholistan desert during an expedition in November 1997. Physico-chemical analysis by standard methods revealed the following information as; electrical conductivity as 211±25.63 μ S/cm, pH as 8.72±0.09, total alkalinity as 5.36±1.63, bicarbonate content 91.44±6.8 MEq/L, chloride content 1.12±0.25 MEq/L, sulphate as 212.49±23.26 MEq/L, Na as 12.12±1.66 MEq/L, K as 11.83±5.06 MEq/L, Ca as 0.62±0.097 MEq/L and Mg as 1.00±0.17 MEq/L. Carbonate and orthophosphate were not detected by the employed methods. The amount of organic matter was 1.035±0.167 per cent with total nitrogen content of 0.047±0.01 per cent. When soil samples were subjected to metal analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy, sub-optimal levels of all four studied metals (in ppm) were found, i.e., Cu was 0.079±0.022, Fe was 1.808±0.316, Mn was 1.653±0.212 and Zn was 0.0363±0.007. These lower levels of essential metals indicate lower demands of these metals by the desert vegetation.
  M. Ashraf , A. Khalid and K. Ali
  Two field experiments were carried out in saline soil receiving fertilizers NPK @ 130-75-75 kg ha-1, respectively, to see the effect of seedling age and number of seedling hill-1 on rice growth and yield. Rice seedlings of 25-, 35- and 55-day-old were transplanted in puddled field. Results revealed that seedlings of 25- to 35-day-old produced significantly higher number of tillers and productive tillers hill-1, paddy and straw yields compared with 55-day-old seedlings. In the second experiment, transplanting of two and three seedlings hill-1 of 35-day-old gave more promising results compared with one and four seedlings. Two seedlings hill-1 caused maximum increase in plant height, straw and paddy yield while more number of tillers and productive tillers were recorded with three seedlings hill-1.
  M. S. Sadiq , G. Sarwar , M. Saleem , G. S. S. Khattak , M. Ashraf and G. Abbas
  Disease resistant mungbean variety NIAB MUNG 92 showed tremendous impact for increasing the area and production of the country demonstrating genetic manipulation of economic traits. Large seed size and earliness had been introgressed into otherwise adapted genetic background. A series of high yielding elite lines having improved morpho-physiological characteristics had been developed. Out of these, NM 92 has been approved as NIAB MUNG 92 in November,1996 by the Punjab Seed Council for general cultivation in the province. The present paper reports the developmental history of NM 92 and its adoption by the growers to achieve sustainable mungbean production.
  Muhammad Yusuf , M. Maqsood , M. Ashraf and M. Ashraf Rathore
  Impact of three input factors such as plant density tillage profile and fertilizer were studied on farmer`s field of Sadhoke, District Gujranwala during the year 1993 and 1994. The results of the experiments conducted both the years revealed that the mean highest grain yield of 4.95 t ha -1 was obtained when all the three input factors were adopted at recommended levels against 2.08 t ha -1 from farmer`s level of inputs respectively. The highest mean contribution was due to fertilizer 1.23 t ha -1 (42.4%) followed by plant density as 0.88 kgs ha -1 (29%) and tillage profile, 0.69 kgs ha -1 (21.9%). The mean highest net return and benefit cost ratio of Rs. 8998 and 2.7 : 1 respectively were found from recommended or researcher`s technology whereas the minimum net return was of Rs. 711 from that of farmer`s level of technology.
  Maqbool Akhtar , Nosheen Noor Elahi and M. Ashraf
  Six exotic sugarcane varieties were evaluated for their agronomic characters and productivity. All exotic sugarcane varieties had similar germination percentage except standard variety CP77-400 which had higher germination. Significant differences were found in number of tillers ha -1, stalk height, girth and total soluble solids. Minimum (102.3 thousands ha -1) number of millable canes were found in variety CP84-1198 and the maximum (160 thousands ha -1) in CP85-1491. Cane yield ranged from the minimum of 70.67 t ha -1 in variety CP84-1198 to the maximum of 131.3 t ha -1 in variety TCP86-3368. Sugar recovery was maximum (13.78 %) in variety CP85-1491 and minimum (11.82%) in the variety TCP86-3368. Sugarcane variety CP84-1198 produced the minimum (9.26 t ha -1) sugar yield. Purity of juice was also significantly different in most of the varieties. All the varieties except CP 84-1198 had better cane and sugar yield potentials than the standard variety.
  Maqbool Akhtar , Nosheen Noor Elahi and M. Ashraf
  Six exotic varieties of sugarcane (CP84-1198, CP85-1491, CP88-1165, CP77-400, CP89-846, TCP86-3368) planted at the National Agricultural Research Centre during 1998-99 were described for their morphological characters. All the varieties greatly varied in different characters. Mean leaf length, number of green leaves and width of leaf lamina/blade was different in different varieties. These varieties also differed in leaf sheath colour, carriage, and other leaf characters. Shape of the dewlap, its size and colour, shape of ligule and ligular process or auricle was also different. All the varieties varied in diameter of the stalks, colour of the stalks, shape of internode, bud groove characters, width and colour of growth ring, width and colour of root zone and wax band characters. Ivory markings were present on stalks of all the varieties. All the varieties were similar in bud size, but different in shapes of the bud, some having flanges and some without flanges. Position of the germ pore on the bud was also different in all the varieties.
  M. Azhar , M. Iqbal , M. A. Khan and M. Ashraf
  A combination of physical and chemical methods can accelerate the reclamation process. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of tillage implements in combination with the chemical amendments on the reclamation of saline-sodic soils. Subsoiler, chisel plough, disk plough and narrow-tine cultivator were employed. Subsoiler is found to be the most effective tillage implement for the reclamation of saline soils. Wheat emergence was maximum in sub-soiled plots followed by chisel plough, disk plough and cultivator. ECe decreased from 29.60 to 4.75 dS m-1 (85%), pH 8.1 to 7.43 (8.27%), ESP 115 to 18 (84.34%), and SAR 92.21 to 13.92 (84.90%). The trend of ECe, pH, ESP and SAR was almost reversed after the treatments. The reclamation rate was greater with 75% gypsum applications than that of 50%.
  Shazia Iram , Iftikhar Ahmad and M. Ashraf
  The root and foliar diseases caused by soil-borne fungi of rice were assessed in main rice-wheat cropping areas of Punjab at the heading stage of the rice crop. Disease severity scales 0-3 and 0-5 were used for root rot and foliar diseases, respectively. The highest mean disease intensity of root rot was 58.88 in Sialkot and lowest 42.21 in Narowal. In case of foliar diseases brown spot, bacterial blight and sheath blight were 100% prevalent in Gujranwala whereas bakanae was present in traces in all four districts of Punjab. In Sheikhupura, blast was highly prevalent (20%) while in Gujranwala and Sialkot, it was absent. Sheath rot was only present in Narowal (16.66%). The highest mean disease intensity of brown spot (40), bacterial blight (44.66) and sheath blight (20) was in Gujranwala. Bacterial blight and sheath blight in Sheikhupura was 8 and 0, respectively. The highest mean disease intensity of blast was 4 in Sheikhupura and absent in Gujranwala and Sialkot. From root, foliar and soil samples Fusarium spp., Nigrospora oryzae, Helminthosporium spp., Curvularia spp., Phytophthora megasperma, Aspergillus spp., Alternaria slternata and Trichocladium spp. were isolated.
  Nosheen Noor Elahi and M. Ashraf
  Three sized vascular bundles and significant difference in the distance between these vascular bundles and different types of motor cells in the leaf blades of all six sugarcane varieties (i.e., CP84-1198, CP85-1491, CP88-1165, CP89-846, TCP86-3368, CP77-400) were noted and these results indicated the existence of relationship between leaf cytology and morphological characters like curling habit. Large vascular bundles were characterized by the presence of large metaxylem vessels on either side of the protoxylem. The cellular composition of large vascular bundles indicated that the phloem loading in large vascular bundle is an apoplastic step. In some varieties large motor cells were observed. Cytological differences in leaf blade indicated the difference in morpho-physiological characters in all the varieties.
  Shazia Iram , M. Ashraf and Iftikhar Ahmad
  A survey was conducted to monitor foliar and root diseases caused by soil-borne fungi at the booting stage of wheat crop in main rice-wheat cropping areas of Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Narowal districts of Punjab. Foliar and root samples were collected from twenty-one key locations of four districts for the assessment of prevalence, incidence and severity of root rot and foliar spots. The highest mean incidence of root rot was 100% in Narowal and Sialkot whereas the lowest of 95% was in Gujranwala. The highest mean severity was 2.2 in Narowal while the lowest 1.5 was in Sialkot. Fusarium spp., Helminthosporium spp., Curvularia spp., Alternaria alternata, Macrophomona phaseolina, Coniothyrium spp., Mucor spp., Trichocladium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Humicola spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from the plants showing root rot symptoms. In Narowal and Sialkot the prevalence of foliar spots was 100% and in Sheikhupura 66.66%. The highest mean incidence 21.25% of foliar spots was in Sialkot and the lowest 15% was in Narowal. The highest mean severity was 4.5 in Sialkot and lowest of 3.5 in Sheikhupura. Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium spp, Fusarium spp. and Chaetomium spp. were isolated from leaves. During this survey it was concluded that root rot was more prevalent than foliar spots. Such types of survey should be conducted every year for the situation of diseases.
  N.E. Nosheen and M. Ashraf
  Six exotic sugarcane varieties CP84-1198, CP85-1491, CP88-1165, CP89-846, TCP86-3368 and CP77-400 were included in the study. The study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between various agronomic traits as number of tillers, stalk height, stalk thickness, cane yield and brix value with sugar recovery. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficient studies of each morphological character with sugar recovery showed negative and non-significant correlations with number of tillers, stalk height and cane yield. Positive but non-significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations were observed between sugar recovery and stalk girth. Only brix value showed positive and significant genotypic correlation with sugar recovery, while phenotypically this correlation was positive but non-significant. The results of the stepwise regression analysis indicated that on single factor basis the maximum R-square value of 0.594 was for brix value related to sugar recovery. The two variable model including the cane yield and brix value yielded highest R-square value of 0.699 with sugar recovery. When a three variable model was performed, out of all the combinations, the best one was for the stalk girth, cane yield and brix value with R-square 0.708. While in the four variable models, in the stepwise regression yielded the best one combination closely related to sugar recovery was stalk girth, stalk height and cane yield with R-square value 0.713. The R-square value was almost similar to four variable model i.e. 0.713 when five variable models were examined. The results of stepwise regression and correlation coefficients studies indicated that brix value (TSS %) and sugar recovery were closely related.
  Z.A. Shah , M. Ashraf and M. Ishtiaq Ch.
  The research experiment was carried out to investigate the cultivation of Oyster mushroom on different substrates. Mushroom cultivation is a profitable agribusiness. Incorporation of non conventional crops in existing agricultural system can improve the economic status of the farmer. Mushrooms are the source of protein, vitamins and minerals and are anticancerous, anticholesteral, and antitumorous. Sawdust produced highest yield, biological efficiency and number of fruiting bodies, recommended as a best substrate for Oyster mushroom cultivation.
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