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Articles by M. Akhyar Farrukh
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Akhyar Farrukh
  Hamidullah Khan and M. Akhyar Farrukh
  Good quality of huge limestone beds are found in many parts of N.W.F.P, Pakistan, particularly in Khyber Agency, Kohat and Cherat Areas. Limestone samples were collected from different localities of these areas for chemical analysis. Results of different areas were compared to each other for the industrial utilization. The chemical composition of the deposits of all the three areas indicate that these deposits would be utilized for production of cement, refining of sugar, glass, ceramic, paper and chemical industries. Percentage of lime was found to be in the range of 31.18-55.10, 38.61-53.05, 44.28-54.42% and average percent composition of SiO2 is 1.45, 3.82, 3.75%, Al2O3, 0.76, 1.157, 0.71%; Fe2O3, 0.34, 0.44, 0.415%; TiO2, 0, 0, 0%; MnO, 0, 0, 0%; P2O5, 0.008, 0.004, 0.024%; CaO, 48.30, 49.77, 52.284%; MgO, 5.60, 2.80, 0.366%; Na2O, 0.23, 0.15, 0.439%; K2O, 0.056, 0.07, 0.227%; SO3, 0.003, 0.002, 0.001%; Cl-, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003%; moisture, 0.065, 0.08, 0.095% and l.O.I, 43.25, 41.97, 41.47% in Khyber Agency, Kohat and Cherat Areas, respectively.
  Iftikhar Imam Naqvi , Sadia Ikram and M. Akhyar Farrukh
  Concentration of electrolytes (Na, K and Li) and trace metals (Fe, Ni and Co) was estimated in selected sweets purchased from eight famous shops of Karachi city. For the determination of electrolytes samples of eight different sweets (Gulab Jaman, Chumchum, Colored Chumchum, Bhashani Chumchum, Khopry ki Mithai, Qalaqand, Besin ka Luddo and Patisa) were analyzed through flame photometry. For the determination of Ni, Co and Fe solution of the sample of Gulab Jaman from six selected shops were passed through cation exchange resin. It was observed that all the three metals required 6 M HNO3 for their complete elution through Dowex 50-X8 strong cation exchange resin, Ni required 30 mL of the acid, Co required 15 mL and Fe required 45 mL of 6 M HNO3, while metals were determined through atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results for electrolytes were compared with recommended dietary allowances (RDA) values and it was observed that almost all the sweets contain high concentration of electrolytes. Therefore present study infer that the ingredients, which are used for the preparation of those sweets, are rich in electrolytes. Whereas results for iron and nickel are in accordance with RDA values. Results for cobalt are seemed to be higher than the recommended values of RDA.
  Iftikhar Imam Naqvi , Qurat-ul-ain Saeed and M. Akhyar Farrukh
  The study presented was concerned with the determination of level of iron, nickel, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese and cadmium in different sweets (Gulab Jamun, White Chum Chum, Colored Chum Chum, Khopre ki Mithai, Qalaqand, Bhashani Chum Chum, Basin ka Lado and Patesa) collected from selected shops of Karachi city. Concentration of selected trace metals were estimated using atomic absorption spectrometer. Results obtained from study show high concentration of iron and manganese in all the sweets. High concentration of iron may be due to the cooking utensils rich of iron. Use of manganese in alloys may be responsible of such high concentration of manganese in sweets. Metal load in sweets of all shops seem in the limits offered by RDA for respective metals. All food colors used in making sweets are permitted food colors, because sweets show no abnormal metal load.
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