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Articles by M. Abdullah
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Abdullah
  Z.A. Zakaria , H.M. Khairi , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman , A.M. Mat Jais , I. Reezal , N.N. Mat Zaid , S.N.Z. Abdul Wahab , N.S. Fadzil , M. Abdullah and C.A. Fatimah
  To determine on the antibacterial activity of the leaves and acute toxicity level of the leaves, tender leaves and rhizomes of Manihot esculenta var. Sri Pontian extracts. The chloroform (CME1) and ethanol (EME1) leaves extracts of M. esculenta (25, 50 and 100% concentrations) were tested against a selected groups of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using the disc diffusion method. On the other hand, the chloroform and ethanol leaves (CME2 and EME2), as well as the tender young leaves (CME3 and EME3) and rhizomes (CME4 and EME4), extracts of M. esculenta, (concentration ranging from 200 to 2600 ppm) were tested for their chronic toxicity level using the brine shrimp bioassay. CME1 was found to give positive antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi while EME1 was effective against P. aeroginosa, C. diphtheria and V. cholerae. The results also showed that among the chloroform extracts, CME4 (LC50) = 413.9±51.6) possessed significantly (p<0.05) high toxicity followed by CME3 (LC50 = 496.2±33.1) and CME2 (LC50 = 532.9±22.9) while among the ethanol extracts, EME3 (LC50 = 344.7±33.9) was significantly (p<0.05) more toxic followed by EME2 (LC50 = 534.3±81.5) and EME4 (LC50 = 609.6±74.8). Overall, EME3 and CME4 were highly toxic than their counterpart (CME3 and EME4), respectively, while CME2 and EME2 did no show any discrepancy in their LD50 value. M. esculenta possess an antibacterial property and low toxicity level.
  Idris A. B. , M. Abdullah and T.P. Lin
  Effects of different diets on the development of scuttle flies larvae, Megaselia scalaris (Loew), pupae and adult emergence and longevity were studied. The diets (treatments) used were nutrient agar (NA, control), casein agar (CA), tissue extracts of the round snail, Bradybaena similaris (Fer.), + NA, tissue extracts of the giant African snails, Achatina fulica (Fer.) + NA, and mixed diets (MD, A. fulica tissue + cabbage leaf powder + NA). A comparison was also made on larval and pupal development when larvae were fed on live snails (A. fulica or B. similaris) versus their tissue extract. The developmental time, mean body weight and body length of M. scalaris larvae were significantly different among treatments (P < 0.05). Larvae fed on tissue extract diet of B. similaris + NA developed faster than larvae fed on NA or MD. In contrast, mean weight of larvae was highest when reared on the MD, tissue extract of A. fulica + NA and CA. Larvae fed on CA had significantly longer mean body length than larvae fed on other diets. The mean weight of pupa was significantly different among treatments (P < 0.05), but not its developmental time (P > 0.05). The mean weight of pupa was significantly lower when larvae were fed on NA or tissue extract of B. similaris + NA than on CA, tissue extract of A. fulica + NA or MD. The percent of adult emergence and longevity was also significantly different among treatments (P < 0.05). The percent of emergence and longevity of adults that originated from larvae fed CA or tissue extract of B. similaris + NA were significantly higher than adults originated from larvae fed NA and tissue extract of A. fulica + NA. The developmental time of larvae fed live host B. similaris were significantly longer than those fed its tissue extracts + NA (P < 0.05), indicating that the larvae had possibly encountered defensive systems of the hosts. In contrast, pupal development took significantly shorter time when larvae were fed live B. similaris + NA than fed it tissue extract (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the developmental time of both larvae and pupae of M. scalaris when fed either live or tissue extract of A. fulica + NA (P > 0.05). The possible use of CA and natural diets for laboratory rearing of M. scalaris as the potential biological control agent of snails is discussed.
  M. Abdullah , Saleem-ur-Rehman , H. Zubair , H.M. Saeed , S. Kousar and M. Shahid
  Four types of soymilk blends were prepared for the preparation of a new variety of ice cream i.e. T1, T2, T3 and T4 in 1:9, 2:8, 3:7 and 4:6 ratios of soy flour: skim milk respectively while plain ice cream with vanilla flavour (T0) was kept as control. The physico-chemical, sensory as well as micro elements detection of ice cream were performed. It was observed that soymilk with maximum quantity of skim milk improved taste, flavour and mouth feel product. Chemical composition of soymilk blend showed 81.80% moisture, 18.20% total solids, (14.35% milk solids-not-fat and 3.85% fat. Plain ice cream (T0) contained 65.815% moisture, 34.176% total solids, 0.7423% ash, 9.850% fat, 3.345% protein, 14.880% sucrose and 5.521% lactose. Acidity determined was 0.190% and pH was 6.71. Statistically high changes were noted for overrun, acidity and lactose while significant change was noted for pH with the increase in storage period (from 0 to 30 days). It was found that ice cream from soymilk blend (T4) contain greater amount of Ca (2.01 mg/100 ml) and Fe (0.44 mg/100 ml) as compared to skim milk (0.58 mg/100 ml Ca and 0.22 mg/100 mL Fe). Sensory tests showed that T2 sample was superior to T4, which obtained lowest score. Large quantity of skim milk in soymilk improved quality of ice cream, and resulted in decline beany flavour of soy beans. It was concluded that soymilk blend can be used for the preparation of frozen desserts especially ice cream. The ice cream prepared from soymilk blend having 20 g soy flour: 80 g skim milk (T2) was of good quality in respect of sensory characteristics such as colour, taste, flavour and overall acceptability. Physico-chemical characteristics showed that T2 sample contained 65.795% moisture, 34.182% total solids, 0.7512% ash, 9.856% fat, 3.430% protein, 14.885% sucrose and 5.462% lactose. Acidity value was 0.19% whereas pH was found to be 6.709.
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