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Articles by M Martin
Total Records ( 3 ) for M Martin
  J Liu , X Wu , J. L Franklin , J. L Messina , H. S Hill , D. R Moellering , R. G Walton , M Martin and W. T. Garvey

Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) was found to inhibit insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and modulate gluconeogenesis in rodent liver. Currently, we examined a role for TRIB3 in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Ten insulin-sensitive, ten insulin-resistant, and ten untreated type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients were metabolically characterized by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamps, and biopsies of vastus lateralis were obtained. Skeletal muscle samples were also collected from rodent models including streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, db/db mice, and Zucker fatty rats. Finally, L6 muscle cells were used to examine regulation of TRIB3 by glucose, and stable cell lines hyperexpressing TRIB3 were generated to identify mechanisms underlying TRIB3-induced insulin resistance. We found that 1) skeletal muscle TRIB3 protein levels are significantly elevated in T2DM patients; 2) muscle TRIB3 protein content is inversely correlated with glucose disposal rates and positively correlated with fasting glucose; 3) skeletal muscle TRIB3 protein levels are increased in STZ-diabetic rats, db/db mice, and Zucker fatty rats; 4) stable TRIB3 hyperexpression in muscle cells blocks insulin-stimulated glucose transport and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and impairs phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and insulin receptor substrate-1 in insulin signal transduction; and 5) TRIB3 mRNA and protein levels are increased by high glucose concentrations, as well as by glucose deprivation in muscle cells. These data identify TRIB3 induction as a novel molecular mechanism in human insulin resistance and diabetes. TRIB3 acts as a nutrient sensor and could mediate the component of insulin resistance attributable to hyperglycemia (i.e., glucose toxicity) in diabetes.

  B. C Visser , H Keegan , M Martin and S. M. Wren

Background  Clinical outcomes are increasingly subject to objective assessment and professional accountability. Informed consent relies on accurate estimation of operative risk. Current scoring systems for assessment of operative mortality after colorectal surgery (CRS) almost uniformly report 30-day mortality and may not represent true risk.

Design  Prospective cohort.

Setting  University-affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

Patients  All patients who underwent resections of the colon and/or rectum (as the principal operation) at a single hospital whose data are captured in the Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VA-NSQIP) database from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2006.

Main Outcome Measures  Mortality at 30 days and 90 days.

Results  The VA-NSQIP cohort included 186 patients who underwent CRS, including 148 patients who underwent elective procedures (79.6%) and 38 patients who underwent emergency procedures (20.4%). All but 8 patients were men, with a median age of 67 years (range, 26-92 years). Laparoscopic operations comprised 24.2% and open operations comprised 75.8%. Most (60.8%) were performed for neoplasms. The actual 30-day mortality rates (all, elective, and emergency procedures) were 4.3%, 1.4%, and 15.8%, respectively. These rates closely mirrored the calculated VA-NSQIP risk-adjusted observed-to-expected ratio for 30-day mortality (4.8%, 1.8%, and 18.2%, respectively). However, mortality at 90 days increased substantially to 9.1%, 4.1%, and 28.9%, respectively.

Conclusion  The 30-day mortality significantly underreports the true risk of death after CRS. The 90-day mortality rate should be included as a standard outcome measure after CRS because it serves as a better estimation of risk for counseling patients.

  S. M Swider , M Martin , C Lynas and S. Rothschild


Adequate training and support are critical for community health workers (promotoras de salud in Spanish) to work effectively. Current literature on promotora training is limited by a focus on promotoras' knowledge and satisfaction immediately after training. The relevance of training to subsequent work performance and the need for ongoing training are rarely addressed. This article describes the training and evaluation components of a promotora intervention focused on diabetes self-management.

Training Methods

Project MATCH (the Mexican American Trial of Community Health Workers) is a clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of an intensive, promotora-based intervention to improve disease self-management for Mexican Americans with diabetes. The MATCH investigators designed a multicomponent promotora training program that provided both initial and ongoing training. The investigators used multiple methods to determine promotoras' knowledge levels, initial competency in intervention delivery, and changes in this competency over time.

Evaluation Methods and Results

The evaluation results show that although the initial training provided a solid knowledge and skills base for the promotoras, the ongoing training was critical in helping them deal with both intervention-related and personal challenges.


The experiences of the MATCH study suggest that in addition to strong initial training, promotora interventions benefit from ongoing training and evaluation to ensure success.

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