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Articles by L.E. Okonko
Total Records ( 3 ) for L.E. Okonko
  L.E. Okonko , N.O. Sam-Uket and E.V. Ikpeme
  Background and Objective: Despite the agricultural importance of glyphosate, there are concerns bordering on their effects on the environment and man. This study was, therefore, designed to analyze the adverse effects of glyphosate on sperm profile and testicular architecture of Wistar rat. Materials and Methods: Twenty four mature male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (A-D) of 6 rats each in a completely randomized design. Group A served as the control, groups B, C and D received 100, 200 and 300 mg kg1 b.wt., of glyphosate, respectively. Treatments were administered via oral gavage for 2 months after which the animals were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia 24 h after the last dose. Sperm and testes samples were collected for examination and analyses. Data obtained were analyzed by using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results: The results revealed a significant (p<0.05) and dose dependent decrease in testes weight, mean sperm motility, viability and count and an increase in sperm head abnormality of rats administered glyphosate treatment compared to the control. Testes photomicrograph of glyphosate treated rats showed mild to severe degeneration of sertoli cells, eroded interstitial cells and atrophy of some spermatogonia cells which was indications of testicular toxicity. Conclusion: Therefore, glyphosate adversely affected sperm quality, sperm quantity and destroyed the cellular architecture of the testes of Wistar rats. These findings indicate that glyphosate could induce infertility in males.
  E.V. Ikpeme , L.E. Okonko and O.U. Udensi
  This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, singly and in combination on reproductive physiology of male albino rats. Thirty six mature male rats were used for this study. Completely randomized design was used in a 3×3 factorial format. Meaning there were 3 treatments (chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin) and each treatment had 3 groups (A, B and C) and each group had 4 rats. Group A was the control and received distilled water. Group B received 5 mg kg–1 b.wt., of treatment while Group C received 10 mg kg–1 b.wt., of treatment. Treatments were administered via oral gavage and lasted for 65 days. The rats were sacrificed; blood and sperm samples were collected and examined. The result revealed that the treatments significantly (p<0.05) reduced epididymal sperm motility, viability and count of rats. While sperm head abnormality increased significantly in treated rats. Furthermore, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and prolactin levels reduced significantly (p<0.05) in treated rats compared to those in the control group. The findings of this study therefore indicate that repeated oral exposure to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, both singly and in combination had adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of male albino rats.
  L.E. Okonko , N.O. Sam-Uket and J.N. Efienokwu
  Background and Objective: Globally, there is growing interest in plant based antioxidants since some synthetic products are reported as carcinogenic. This research was, therefore, designed to investigate in vivo antioxidant activities of African basil and African nutmeg aqueous extracts in Wistar rat. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 10 groups (I-X) of five each. Rats in group I received only water, group II received 10 mg kg1 b.wt., of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and groups III and IV received 200 and 300 mg kg1 b.wt., of O. gratissimum, respectively. Groups V and VI received CCl4 plus 200 mg kg1 b.wt., and CCl4 plus 300 mg kg1 b.wt., of O. gratissimum, respectively. Groups VII and VIII received 200 and 300 mg kg1 b.wt., of M. myristica, respectively whereas, groups IX and X received CCl4 plus 200 and CCl4 plus 300 mg kg1 b.wt., of M. myristica, respectively. Treatments were administered via oral gavage for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin and total protein). Results: Rats administered CCl4 exhibited significant (p<0.05) elevation in all the analyzed parameters (except total protein and albumin) compared to the control. Aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum and M. myristica maintained liver enzymes within the control values, whereas each extract plus CCl4 reduced liver enzymes compared to CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that both extracts could offer protection against CCl4-induced liver damage (oxidative stress) due to their antioxidant activities.
 
 
 
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