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Articles by L. S. Phillips
Total Records ( 2 ) for L. S. Phillips
  M. K. Rhee , D. Musselman , D. C. Ziemer , V. Vaccarino , P. Kolm , W. S. Weintraub , J. M. Caudle , R. M. Varughese , J. M. Irving and L. S. Phillips
  Aims  To understand the metabolic and temporal links in the relationship between diabetes and depression, we determined the association between depressive symptoms and unrecognized glucose intolerance.

Methods  In a cross-sectional study, 1047 subjects without known diabetes were screened for diabetes or pre-diabetes using the oral glucose tolerance test and for depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ).

Results  Mean age was 48 years, body mass index 30 kg/m2; 63% were female, 54% black, 11% previously treated for depression and 10% currently treated; 5% had diabetes and 34% pre-diabetes. Median PHQ score was 2 (interquartile range 0-5). Depressive symptoms did not increase with worsening glucose tolerance, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, family history, exercise, education and depression treatment.

Conclusions  There is no association between depressive symptoms and unrecognized glucose intolerance. However, it remains possible that diagnosed diabetes, with its attendant health concerns, management issues, and/or biological changes, may be a risk for subsequent development of depression. Thus, patients with newly diagnosed diabetes should be counselled appropriately and monitored for the development of depression.

  N. Dubowitz , W. Xue , Q. Long , J. G. Ownby , D. E. Olson , D. Barb , M. K. Rhee , A. V. Mohan , P. I. Watson-Williams , S. L. Jackson , A. M. Tomolo , T. M. Johnson II and L. S. Phillips


To determine whether using HbA1c for screening and management could be confounded by age differences, whether age effects can be explained by unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes, insulin resistance or postprandial hyperglycaemia, and whether the effects of aging have an impact on diagnostic accuracy.


We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in adults without known diabetes in the Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance (SIGT) study 2005-2008 (n=1573) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 (n=1184).


Both glucose intolerance and HbA1c levels increased with age. In univariate analyses including all subjects, HbA1c levels increased by 0.93 mmol/mol (0.085%) per 10 years of age in the SIGT study and by 1.03 mmol/mol (0.094%) per 10 years in the NHANES; in both datasets, the HbA1c increase was 0.87 mmol/mol (0.08%) per 10 years in subjects without diabetes, and 0.76 mmol/mol (0.07%) per 10 years in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, all P<0.001. In multivariate analyses of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, the relationship between age and HbA1c remained significant (P<0.001) after adjustment for covariates including race, BMI, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, triglyceride/HDL ratio, and fasting and 2-h plasma glucose and other glucose levels, as assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. In both datasets, the HbA1c of an 80-year-old individual with normal glucose tolerance would be 3.82 mmol/mol (0.35%) greater than that of a 30-year-old with normal glucose tolerance, a difference that is clinically significant. Moreover, the specificity of HbA1c-based diagnostic criteria for prediabetes decreased substantially with increasing age (P<0.0001).


In two large datasets, using different methods to measure HbA1c, the association of age with higher HbA1c levels: was consistent and similar; was both statistically and clinically significant; was unexplained by features of aging; and reduced diagnostic specificity. Age should be taken into consideration when using HbA1c for the diagnosis and management of diabetes and prediabetes.

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