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Articles by L Walker
Total Records ( 2 ) for L Walker
  L Walker , W Brampton , M Halai , C Hoy , E Lee , I Scott and D. J. McLernon

The McGrath® Series 5 videolaryngoscope might reduce the incidence of unexpected difficult tracheal intubation. If it also performs as well as a standard laryngoscope during uncomplicated intubations, there would be an argument for the McGrath® to become the laryngoscope of choice in higher risk settings, such as rapid sequence induction by inexperienced anaesthetists. Therefore, we compared the McGrath and the Macintosh laryngoscopes during routine tracheal intubation performed by inexperienced anaesthetists.


Single-blind randomized controlled trial with 120 adult patients allocated to intubation by first-year anaesthetic trainees, using a McGrath® or Macintosh laryngoscope. The primary outcome was time to intubation. Secondary outcomes were quality of view at laryngoscopy and evidence of differential learning between using the two laryngoscopes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the effect of the laryngoscopes on time to intubation.


Duration of intubation was significantly longer (P<0.001) in the McGrath® group [median (IQR); 47.0 (39.0–60.0) vs 29.5 (23.0–36.8) s]. There were no significant differences in other outcomes, including grade of laryngoscopy view, visual confirmation of tube placement, number of laryngoscopies, or complications (oesophageal intubation, hypoxaemia, and airway trauma). There was no differential learning effect.


There were no advantages to using the McGrath® laryngoscope for uncomplicated tracheal intubation and duration of intubation was longer, so it should not be used as a first-line laryngoscope instrument by inexperienced anaesthetists.

Trials Registry: This trial was registered before onset of participation at Identification no. 08-so802-4. URL:

  S Seliger , K. M Fox , S. R Gandra , B Bradbury , V. D Hsu , L Walker , C. F Chiou and J. C. Fink

Background and objectives: The severity of anemia at which to initiate erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) treatment in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is unclear. Risk of mortality, hospitalizations, and blood transfusion were compared among nondialysis CKD patients with "early" versus "delayed" ESA initiation.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on CKD (estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2) outpatients in the national Veterans Administration who were initiated on ESAs. Patients with ESRD, gastrointestinal bleeding, chemotherapy, or hematologic malignancy were excluded. Patients were characterized as having early [hemoglobin (Hb) 10.0 to 11.0 g/dl] or delayed (Hb 8.0 to 9.9 g/dl) ESA initiation. A propensity score comprising demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables was used to select a 1:1 matched cohort. Cox survival and negative binomial regression were used to compare the matched groups for all-cause mortality, hospitalizations, and blood transfusions.

Results: Of 1837 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1410 (77%) were successfully matched. The groups did not differ significantly in 31 characteristics reflecting sociodemographics, comorbidity, healthcare utilization, and renal function. There was no significant difference in mortality with early initiation. Those initiated early had a 17% lower risk of initial hospitalization and a 29% lower risk of transfusion compared with delayed initiation patients. Results did not differ between those with and without pre-ESA transfusion or hospitalization.

Conclusions: In nondialysis CKD, ESA initiation at Hb 10.0 to 11.0 g/dl compared with 8.0 to 9.9 g/dl is associated with reduced risk of blood transfusion and initial hospitalization.

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