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Articles by Khaled F. Mahmoud
Total Records ( 5 ) for Khaled F. Mahmoud
  Khaled F. Mahmoud , Waffa M.M. Abo-zeid , Yousef A. El Shattory , O.S. El Kinawy and Manal F. Salama
  The emulsification process of sunflower oil in water using high speed homogenizing was studied in presence of 30% oil, 3% emulsifier (Tween 40) supplemented with 0.4-0.8% vitamin E (α-tocopherole). The obtained emulsion was stable according its physico-chemical properties, particle size, zeta potential, Poly-Disperse Index (PDI), surface tension and interfacial tension. Biscuit samples were also prepared with and without α-tochopherole. The DPPH scavenging activity was measured during storage 9 month and compared to BHT. Increasing concentrate of α-tochopherol 0.8% has an excellent effect of on DPPH scavenging activity where as it changes from 91.87-74.22% before and after the storage months period. The physico-chemical properties of oil (PV, IV, FFA, CD and CT) extracts from biscuits with or without vit. E were evaluated. The results showed that presence of 0.8% vit. E gives the lower changes in PV (0.13) compared to 0.46 of control oil and hence improve stability. In comparison to shortening dough, the microemulsion prepared biscuits has more volume and height.
  Khaled F. Mahmoud , Mona A. Ibrahim , El-Demery Mervat , Hamdy A. Shaaban , Mohie M. Kamil and Nefisa A. Hegazy
  Bioactive compounds of citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) by-product such as orange and lemon peels extract were investigated. Antioxidant activity of orange and lemon peels extract were compared with BHT and α-tocopherol at different concentrations levels. The highest antioxidant activity of OPWE and LPWE reached to 63.866 and 52.741% at extract concentration 120 mg mL–1. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of OPEE and LPEE were maximized to reach to 81.347 and 61.534% at extract concentration 120 mg mL–1, respectively. After nanoencapsulation, the DSC showed that the melting point was increased from 73.6-231.8°C for (OPEE) before and after encapsulation, respectively. The TEM showed that the particle size of orange extract was 38 nm before encapsulation and raised a minimum of 4.2 nm after encapsulation and re-dispersion. The encapsulation efficiency of all orange peel extract formulas (10% maltodextrin+2% arabic gum per peels extract), (8% maltodextrin+2% arabic gum per peels extract), (10% arabic gum per peels extract) and (10% maltodextrin per peels extract) were increased to 87.65, 97.62, 63.81 and 72.32%, respectively. Orange peels extract nanoencapsulated (OPNE) characterized with its highest antioxidant potential in all storage period, while the nanoencapsulated of lemon peels (LPNE) gave the lowest antioxidant 52.44% after 60 days storage at 4°C. The OPNE was applied in cake. The obtained cake samples were sensory evaluated. Cake samples showed no significant difference in color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Finally, the extracts of dried orange or lemon peels could be considered as potential antioxidant ingredients in food products.
  Ahmed M.S. Hussein , Mohie M. Kamil , Shereen N. Lotfy , Khaled F. Mahmoud , Fathy M. Mehaya and Ayman A. Mohammad
  Background: Herbs have been used for several purposes i.e., flavorings, beverages, repellents, fragrances, cosmetics and for their medicinal properties. Now a days, the interest in herbs has considerably increased, particularly as a natural source of flavor and antioxidants for the food and pharmaceutical industries. The quality and acceptability of food are related to flavor stability. It is well known that, manufacturing and storage processes, package materials and ingredient of foods often reduce aroma compound intensity. In order to minimize aroma degradation or loss during processing and storage, it is beneficial to encapsulate volatile ingredients prior to use in foods or beverages. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of using different carrier materials on chemical composition, thermal stability and antioxidant activity of nano-encapsulated rosemary essential oil. Methodology: About 100 g of rosemary was subjected to hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus for 4 h to isolate its essential oil. Essential oil sample was analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS. The nano-encapsulation was procedure by homogenization technique in all samples. Encapsulation Efficiency (EE), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content of encapsulated essential oil samples were evaluated. Thermal stability assessment was done by Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC). Results: The results revealed that the highest release of total phenol (3349.4 μg GAE mL–1) and DPPH scavenging activity of rosemary EO were found in case of using chitosan as carrier material for nano-encapsulation process compared to CMC or sodium alginate. Also, the nano-encapsulation process improved thermal stability of rosemary EO. The TEM of nano-encapsulated of rosemary EO in CMC showed the lowest nano-particle size (10-20 nm) compared with chitosan or sodium alginate. After the GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds of rosemary EO revealed that 1,8-cineole (30.88%), camphor (22.71%), α-terpineol (15.01%), α-pinene (8.78%) and camphene (4.31%) were the major compounds in rosemary EO. The results showed an increasing content of oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene oxide and ester in nano-encapsulated rosemary EO samples. An opposite behavior was observed in content of monoterpens. Conclusion: In this study, the major components of rosemary EO were 1,8-cineole (30.88%), camphor (22.71%), α-terpineol (15.01%), α-pinene (8.78%) and camphene (4.31%). The type of wall materials has influence on the particles size and encapsulation efficiency and antioxidant activity of rosemary EO. The results indicated that nano-capsulation process increased the thermal stability of rosemary EO and could be useful as antioxidant for various thermal processing applications in industry.
  R.K. Moawad , G.F. Mohamed , Hanna , A. El-Banna , G.F. Bareh and Khaled F. Mahmoud
  Objective: Keeping food safety and quality among consumers is of high importance. In this regard, naturally occurring antimicrobial, antioxidant and flavoring agents were preferred. Methodology: Therefore, the preservative effects of marjoram essential oil (MEO, 0.5%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, 2%) or their combination on the quality changes of raw Nile tilapia fillets during 15 days refrigerated storage (4±1°C) were investigated. Results: Physicochemical evaluation of tilapia fillets revealed that MEO batch showed significantly (p<0.05) lower pH, TBARS and TVB-N values, whereas STPP treated samples gave higher constant (p<0.05) pH values, WHC, moisture retention and weight gain with the least cooking loss as compared to other fillet batches. Microbiological analyses indicated that Total Viable Counts (TVC) for fresh Oreochromis niloticus stored aerobically exceeded 6 log CFU g–1 after 6 days, while STPP and MEO treatments reached the same value after 9 and 12 days, respectively. In contrast, MEO+STPP treated samples did not reach this value throughout the 15 days. Psychrotrophic counts (PTC) of MEO treated samples were significantly (p<0.05) lower compared to STPP and control samples during storage period. Throughout the cold storage, phosphate pretreatment showed the synergistic effect with MEO on reduction of microbiological proliferation, lipid oxidation, protein breakdown and sensorial changes of tilapia fillets till the end of storage. As regards sensory evaluation, preference of panelists was focused on MEO applied fillets, while slight improvement in sensory quality was noticed in samples treated with STPP as compared with control samples. Shelf-life of tilapia fillet was longest for MEO+STPP batch (15 days), followed by MEO (12 days), STPP (9 days) and control samples (6 days). Conclusion: Due to concerns regarding the safety and toxicity of synthetic preservatives, combined dipping pretreatment (MEO+STPP) may prove useful as safe, natural application to fish industry, to preserve their good quality characteristics, delay the spoilage, extend the shelf-life and ensure safe consumption of such fish product.
  Sahar Y. Al-Okbi , Ahmed M.S. Hussein , Hagar F.H. Elbakry , Karem Aly Fouda , Khaled F. Mahmoud and Mohamed E. Hassan
  Background and Objective: Dyslipidemia is a major health problem that may lead to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In the present research, a biological experiment was run on dyslipidemic rats to study the health benefits of the volatile oils (VOs) of fennel and rosemary in its original and nano-form using chitosan as carrier. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 6 groups; normal control, dyslipidemic control and 4 test groups with dyslipidemia and treated by VOs of fennel and rosemary and their respective nano-forms separately. Glucose tolerance test was carried out after 4 weeks. Parameters reflecting oxidative stress/antioxidant plasma catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood uric acid, were assessed. Plasma lipid profile and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as inflammatory biomarker were determined. Liver and kidney function were assessed as determinant of the safety of the different VO forms. Twenty four hour urinary volume was measured to assess creatinine clearance and to evaluate the possible diuretic activity of the VOs. Results: Dyslipidemic control rats showed dyslipidemia, increased CVDs risk, liver dysfunction, elevated MDA and TNF-α with marked increase in blood sugar after half an hour of glucose ingestion compared to normal control. Treatment with the four VOs forms improved the majority of the biochemical parameters. Conclusion: All treatment showed cardio and hepato- protective effect and safety towards kidney and blood sugar. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were significantly improved by the different treatments; both VO forms of fennel were more efficient in ameliorating inflammation.
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