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Articles by K.N. Agbafor
Total Records ( 4 ) for K.N. Agbafor
  K.N. Agbafor , C. Ezeali and E.I. Akubugwo
  Extracts of various parts of Newbouldia laevis are used traditionally in Eastern Nigeria in management and treatment of several diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study investigated anticonvulsant and analgesic potentials of leaf and root extracts. The extracts were prepared with deionized water and ethylacetate. Extracts doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg–1 b.wt. were used for the investigations. Anticonvulsant potential of the extracts against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion was tested in albino rats, by measuring time for convulsion onset, duration of convulsion and plasma glucose and Ca2+ levels before, during and after convulsion, using diazepam as standard. The hot plate method was used to investigate the analgesic property of the extracts using morphine sulphate as standard. Pretreatment of the animals with different doses of the extracts delayed the onset of convulsion in a dose-dependent manner. Convulsion was not observed in 800 mg kg–1 b.wt. of Deionized Water Leaf (DWL) extract and in diazepam pretreated groups. The extracts decreased significantly (p<0.05) the severity of convulsion and prolonged the duration of convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole. The plasma concentration of glucose and Ca2+ decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the test groups through the course of convulsion, while they did not change significantly (p>0.05) in the non-convulsed groups. All the extracts at all doses and 4 mg kg–1 of morphine sulphate (an analgesic) showed a significant (p<0.05) percentage inhibition against hot plate induced pain. The difference between the analgesic potentials of 800 mg kg–1 of DWL extract and 4 mg kg–1 morphine sulphate was not significant (p>0.05). These findings indicate that the extracts may be effective in management/treatment of convulsion and pains.
  I.K. Obiudu , A.C. Okolie , K.N. Agbafor , M.E. Unaegbu , G.A. Engwa and C.V. Obiudu
  The present study was aimed at investigating the anti-diabetic properties and photochemical constituents of aqueous and methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea seeds in albino rats. Phytochemical screening was performed using standard procedures. Forty five adult male albino rats, placed in nine groups (A-I), of five in each group were used. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally with a single dose of 100 mg kg–1 b.wt., of alloxan monohydrate solution. After diabetes induction (in all the groups except I), groups A, B and C were orally administered 100, 200 and 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., of aqueous extract respectively, D, E and F received 100, 200 and 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., of methanol extract respectively, while G was given glibenclamide (antidiabetic drug) 2 mg kg–1 b.wt., Groups H and I received distilled water only. Administration was done twice daily for fourteen days. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones and glycosides. The glucose concentration of all the groups treated with alloxan monohydrate was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the untreated one. After treatment with the extract and the drug (Glibenclamide), there was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in glucose concentration of the administered groups relative to the untreated. The effect was linearly dose-dependent. The difference between the groups given the extracts and the one treated with glibenclamide was significant (p<0.05). The effect of the aqueous extracts was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of methanol extract. The result of this research indicates that aqueous and methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea seeds possess the ability to reduce blood glucose level and may be partly responsible for its application in treatment of diabetes.
  K.N. Agbafor , P.M. Ajah , C.E. Offor , I.O. Igwenyi and U.A. Ibiam
  This study was aimed at investigating the effect of water and salt samples from Okposi and Uburu salt lakes on some serum trace elements and the cardiovascular system. Serum levels of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) manganese (Mn), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and lipid profile were measured in albino rats after treating them with different doses of salt and water from the lakes for seven consecutive days. Average body weight, physical activities and food and intake decreased in all the treated groups compared with the control. The levels of Cu, Cd, Co and Mn in test groups were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the concentrations of cardiac troponin I, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low density lipoproteins, in the treated groups relative to the control while high density lipoproteins in the control were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the treated groups. The observations were also statistically more pronounced (p<0.05) in the groups given water samples than those administered salt samples. The differences in the levels of these parameters between groups given Okposi samples and those treated with Uburu samples were not significant (p>0.05). The effects of the samples were found to be dose- dependent. These results indicate that the samples may be toxic to the cardiovascular system and this toxicity may be reduced by the methods of processing the salt. The toxicity of the samples may be due to the chemical contents of the lakes.
  K.N. Agbafor , E.I. Akubugwo , M.E. Ogbashi , P.M. Ajah and C.C. Ukwandu
  This research was designed to evaluate the chemical (phytochemical, vitamin and mineral) and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) properties of leaves of Zapoteca portoricensis. Four extracts were prepared with deionized water, methanol, ethylacetate and diethylether. Phytochemical and vitamin analyses were performed according to standard methods while mineral content was measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Agar disc diffusion method was used for antimicrobial study. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids and anthraquinones which were present in the extracts, varied significantly (p<0.05) among the extracts. The level of Vitamins B2, B6, C, E and niacin, found in all the extracts did not show any significant difference (p>0.05), except B6 and C. The values for B6 and C in water extract were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in ethylacetate and diethylether extracts. All the extracts contained Na, Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn and Fe, whose values did not vary significantly (p>0.05) in the extracts. The extracts inhibited all the microorganisms tested in a concentration dependent pattern, the water extract being significantly higher (p<0.05) than organic extracts. These results may be useful in explaining the medicinal applications of leaves of Zapoteca portoricensis.
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