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Articles by K. Yamauchi
Total Records ( 8 ) for K. Yamauchi
  J. Ruttanavut and K. Yamauchi
  To investigate the growth performance and histological intestinal alterations of broilers fed on dietary mixed minerals (MM), 7 day old broiler chicks were divided into 4 groups, with 4 replicates of 12 male chicks. They were fed ad libitum for 49 days with a basal commercial mash diet supplemented with MM at 0, 0.5 and 1 g kg-1 throughout the experiment (control, 0.5 g kg-1 MMS, 1 g kg-1 MMS) and 0.5 g kg-1 during the finisher period (0.5 g kg-1 MMF). Mineral supplementation did not influence the growth performance of broilers during the first 3 weeks, but tended to show higher growth and feed efficiency for the MM groups than for the control group at week 7. In light microscopic observation, values of the intestinal villus height, villus area and cell mitosis numbers were higher (p<0.05) in the 0.5 g kg-1 MMS and 0.5 g kg-1 MMF groups than those of the control in the duodenal segment. In scanning electron microscopic observation, all MM groups showed more protuberant epithelial cells on the villus apical surface of the duodenum. The present histological intestinal alterations in broilers fed the MM diet demonstrate that intestinal function could be stimulated in the duodenum, resulting in improved growth performance. The results obtained in this study have revealed that minerals may need to be supplemented during the finisher period of broiler production at a higher content than the feed manufacturer recommendation, to allow optimal performance.
  T. Incharoen , O. Khambualai and K. Yamauchi
  To investigate the effects of dietary combinations of zeolite, plant extract and vermiculite (ZEM®) on growth performance and histological intestinal changes, male Sanuki Cochin chickens were allotted to 3 groups of 12 birds each. They were fed ad libitum on a basal commercial mash diet with 0 (control), 1 and 2 g kg-1 dietary ZEM®. A starter diet (CP, 21%; ME, 3,000 kcal kg-1) was fed to chickens until 28 day of age, at which point a grower diet (CP, 18%; ME, 2,850 kcal kg-1) was fed until 70 day of age. Feed intake and body weight gain tended to increase with increasing levels of dietary ZEM® and feed efficiency tended to be highest in the 1 g kg-1 ZEM® group. Most intestinal villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis numbers were better than those of the control group and the duodenal cell areas and cell mitosis numbers of all intestinal parts were greater (p<0.05) in the ZEM® groups than in the control group. Protuberated cells were observed on the villus tip of the ZEM® groups. These histological changes indicate that the intestinal villi and epithelial cells were hypertrophied by ZEM®. The present results suggest that chicken growth performance would be improved due to hypertrophied intestinal villi and epithelial cells after feeding ZEM® and that ZEM® is effective alimentation for chicken diets.
  M. Takayama , K. Yamauchi and T. Aizawa
  Not available
  J. Ruttanavut , K. Yamauchi , H. Goto and T. Erikawa
  To investigate effects of a mixture of bamboo charcoal powder and bamboo vinegar solution (SB) on growth performance and histological intestinal change, 48 mixed sex Aigamo ducks were fed the basal commercial diet supplemented with SB at 0, 0.1 and 1% ad libitum for 49 days. Although, feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were not significantly different, the growth performance tended to be improved with increasing dietary SB. In these birds, also the intestinal villus height, villus area, epithelial cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments tended to be increased with increasing dietary SB and increased in 1% dietary group (p<0.05). Besides, protuberated cells were observed on the villus apical surface in SB groups. These histological intestinal alterations of the villi and epithelial cells suggest that the intestinal function would be hypertrophied by the dietary SB and that the dietary SB can use at 1% level for Aigamo duck diets.
  T. Incharoen and K. Yamauchi
  To evaluate the effect of dietary Dried Fermented Ginger (DFG) on production performance, egg quality and intestinal histology, 27 White Leghorn laying hens (24 weeks of age) were assigned into three groups of 9 birds each as follows: the control group was fed a basal diet (CP, 17%; ME, 2,850 kcal/kg) and the other groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 1% or 5% DFG. Compared with the control, feed consumption tended to increase in DFG groups and increased significantly in the 1% DFG group (p<0.05). Hen-day egg production and egg mass are better in both DFG groups. Feed efficiency tended to be a little higher value in the DFG diets. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in shell-breaking strength, shell thickness, shell ratio, albumen ratio, yolk ratio, yolk color and Haugh unit among the dietary treatments. Villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments tended to be higher in DFG groups than in the control group and jejunal cell area of the 1% DFG group as well as jejunal cell mitosis of the both DFG groups showed significant increases. Moreover, the cells on the villus tip surface were protuberated in all DFG groups, resulting in a rough surface. In addition, segmented filamentous bacteria were observed in the ileum of the 5% DFG group. These results suggest that dietary DFG increase the production performance of layer chickens due to hypertrophy of intestinal villi and epithelial cells at 1% DFG.
  I. Batubara , L.K. Darusman , T. Mitsunaga , H. Aoki , M. Rahminiwati , E Djauhari and K. Yamauchi
  This study aims to obtain active compounds from Intsia palembanica with skin whitening activity. I. palembanica methanol extracts were separated using chromatography techniques and yielded 3 flavanols. Isolated compounds along with 6 other flavonoid compounds were analyzed for tyrosinase inhibitory activity and inhibition of melanin cell growth in B16 cell. The results showed that (-)-robidanol is the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 monophenolase 8.7 μM; diphenolase 26.6 μM) and inhibit melanin synthesis 46.2% compared to control (at 100 μM). In conclusion, (-)-robidanol is the best compound as a whitening agent.
  I. Batubara , S. Kotsuka , K. Yamauchi , H. Kuspradini , T. Mitsunaga and L.K. Darusman
  In this study 28 Indonesian medicinal plants species has been screened as potential Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α inhibitor. Plant materials were extracted with methanol. The activity test was performed on human monocyte-derived THP-1 (ATCC No. TIB 202) which was stimulated by Lipopolyssacharide (LPS). The TNF-α production and cell viability were determined by commercial ELISA kit and WST-1, respectively. All extracts were determined for their phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents by spectrophotometry and chromatography methods. From 40 plant materials, 5 plant materials had cell viability lower than 70% at 10 ppm concentration and about 8 plant materials had good cell viability higher than 90% at 10 ppm concentration. Among 8 plant materials extract which had good cell viability, only Avicenia sp. stem and Goniothalamus macrophyllus leaf methanol extracts had high TNF-α inhibitory activity. The total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were varied depending on the sample. No correlation was found between TNF-α inhibitory activity with the total phenolic content, flavonoid content and tannin content. In conclusion, among Indonesian medicinal plants, the highest potential as TNF-α inhibitors were Avicenia sp. stem and G. macrophyllus leaves.
  L.K. Darusman , I. Batubara , T. Mitsunaga , M. Rahminiwati , E. Djauhari and K. Yamauchi
  Intsia palembanica is the most potential plant having tyrosinase inhibitor over 30 Indonesian plants that have been searched. It’s active compound namely (-)-robidanol, (+)-epirobidanol and 4’-dehydroxyrobidanol had been identified and showed the tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The study aims to obtain the kinetic enzyme inhibition type of the three active compounds. About 3 g of I. palembanica methanol extract was fractionated using n-hexane soluble part, ethyl-acetate soluble part and aqueous soluble part. Compounds were isolated for the most active part (ethyl-acetate soluble part) by silica gel column chromatography. Purification of fractions was performed using preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Kinetic inhibition against tyrosinase on monophenolase and diphenolase were analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The results showed that three active compounds showed different kinetic inhibition type on monophenolase and diphenolase. The kinetic characteristics of (-)-robidanol, the most active inhibitor, on monophenolase were Km increased and Vmax did not changed while on diphenolase were Vmax decreased and Km did not change. In conclusion, (-)-robidanol is a competitive inhibitor for monophenolase and a non-competitive inhibitor for diphenolase. The kinetic data is useful for further research on mechanism of action of the whitening agent that will be formulated.
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