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Articles by K. Sahayaraj
Total Records ( 6 ) for K. Sahayaraj
  K. Sahayaraj and J. Shoba
  Botanical insecticides have been recommended by most of the Biointensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) Practitioners throughout the world. However, the target organs for such botanicals are imperative. Here, the toxicological effects of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) (Fabaceae) and Acalypha indica (Linn.) (Euphorbiaceae) crude extract on the mortality, reproductive organs macromolecules, mineral level in alimentary canal and detoxication enzyme level in the fat body and intestine of Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab.) (Pyrrhocoridae) was studied. Crude extract of A. indica caused more mortality than T. purpurea. Cotton leaves and seed were altered the impact of these botanicals pesticidal property. For instance, the LC50 value was higher when the pest was fed with aqueous extract treated cotton seeds than on cotton leaves. Detoxication enzymes like Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) level was high in intestine than the fat body whether the insect fed with cotton leaves or cotton seeds. AAT level was enhanced by the T. purpurea extract than A. indica extract. The Na+ level high in cotton seed fed pest whereas K+ level and Ca++ level were high in cotton leaves fed animals. A. indica sprayed cotton seed induce the Na+ and K+ level in the alimentary canal. Ca++ level decreased by A. indica and T. purpurea extracts sprayed cotton seed and leaves fed pest. Treatment of T. purpurea and A. indica altered both total glucose and protein level of D. cingulatus ovary and tests. It seems that the detrimental effect of the botanical crude extract can be due to both the modulating nature of the extracts and the biochemical alteration in the respective system, alimentary canal and fat body of the D. cingulatus can be a potent candidate in integrated pest management programmes for controlling such pests.
  C.A. Jasmine , S. Sundari , P. Kombiah , S. Kalidas and K. Sahayaraj
  To utilize a plant-based insecticide, the study of biosafety of botanical insecticide to polyphagous natural enemies are imperative. A laboratory trial was conducted to investigate the biosafety of Tephrosia purpurea stem-based formulation (Telp 3% EC) against three reduviid predators such as, Rhynocoris fuscipes, Rhynocoris marginatus and Rhynocoris longifrons adults using Y-shaped olfactometer considering olfactory response as a tool. Telp 3% EC was impregnated in Whatman No. 1 filter paper, Bt cotton leaves (BT bunny) and groundnut leaves (TMV 4). The Access Proportion Index (API) was calculated in different time intervals like 20, 40 and 60 min. Olfactory response results revealed that impregnation of Telp 3% EC in Bt cotton leaves does not deter Rhynocoris longifrons olfactory response whereas, groundnut leaves deter both Rhynocoris fuscipes and Rhynocoris marginatus olfactory response. It has been concluded from the results that Telp 3% EC can be incorporated along with reduviid predators in BT cotton pest management. However, detailed studies are necessary to confirm the observation.
  K. Sahayaraj and Jagvir Singh
  Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the populations of macroalgal in relation to four seasons in Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology: Fortnightly replicate of marine macroalgae were collected from four Southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India for a period of 12 months continuously. More than 435 specimens were collected from Tamil Nadu coast from April, 2010-March, 2011. More number of genus (30) as well as species (64) was recorded during Southwest monsoon. Results: The genus Gracilaria dominated in South West monsoon (15.28%) followed by Ulva in winter (14.81%). Besides, Caulerpa scalpelliformis distributed in all season in more than 10%. Season specific macroalgae was observed in Tamil Nadu. For instance, Amphiroa anceps, Bryopsis plumose, Caulerpa scalpelliformis (equal proportions) in summer, Gracilaria corticata in both South West and North East monsoons and Caulerpa scalpelliformis in winter. Acanthophora spicifera, Enteromorpha compressa, Galoxaura marguata and Sarconema filiforme recorded only during South West monsoon. Hormophysa triquetra was recorded only at summar, whereas Hypnea musciformis during winter. Abiotic factors have not influence on the distribution of macroalgae in the study areas. Conclusion: Hence, it is recommended to study the influence of other factors like seawater physio-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations on the population level of macroalgae in the study area. Further the data is very much useful for specific plant collectors for their research work.
  K. Sahayaraj , S. Kumara Sankaralinkam and R. Balasubramanian
  Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) was reared on two natural lepidopteron pests [Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) and Pericallia ricini (Fab.)] and a factitious host (Corcyra cephalonica Stainton). Whereas Catamiarus brevipennis (Serville) reared on C. cephalonica, S. litura and Thunberg. Impact of these preys on the total body, midgut, hindgut and entire salivary gland weight, their enzymes qualitative profile was recorded. Total carbohydrates and lipids and more amount of proteins were observed in S. litura fed R. marginatus showed maximum total body, midgut, hindgut and salivary gland weights. Presence of more amount of total lipids and carbohydrates in M. pustulata favours the body, gut and salivary gland weight of C. brevipennis. Amylase, invertase, lipase, protease, trypsin and pepsin activities were well pronounced in the midgut than the hindgut of both reduviids. R. marginatus and C. brevipennis salivary gland expressed more amylase, invertase, protease and lipase activities.
  K. Sahayaraj , P. Selvarj and R. Balasubramanian
  The aim of this study to evaluat the immunological impact of the Crude Ecdysone Fractions (CEF) of 3 ferns such as Christella parasitica (L.) H.lev., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Khun and Hemionitis arifolia (Burm) T. More. on two major polyphagous pests, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The results revealed that the Haemosomic Index (HI) and the Total Haemocyte Count (THC) were higher in control than the experimental insects. Irrespective of the CEF treatment, HI increased gradually from the first day to the fourth day of observation. Similar trend was also observed for the THC. Among the three ferns, C. parasitica highly reduce the HI followed by H. arifolia and P. aquilinum. Six types of haemocytes viz., Prohaemocytes (PR), Plasmatocytes (PL), Granular cells (GR), Spherule cells (SP), Oenocytoids (OE) and Adipohaemocytes (AD) were observed in both pests. Among the six types of haemocytes observed, PL constituted highest percentage control categories of both H. armigera and S. litura population. In ferns treated categories, PR, SP and AD levels of both pests were increased. Among the six types of haemocytes, cellular mediated response was observed only on GR, SP, PR and PL cells, which either underwent lyses or aggregation. Lyses or aggregation were well pronounced in H. armigera than S. litura.
  K. Sahayaraj and J. Francis Borgio
  The effectiveness of oil-based conidia formulation of three indigenous fungal isolates such as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vaillemin, Verticillium lecanii (Zimm). Viegas and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown et Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) were evaluated against fourth instar larvae of Pericallia ricini Fab. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) under laboratory conditions by dermal toxicity test. All the three isolates were pathogenic to P. ricini at all tested concentrations. Among the three isolates, P. fumosoroseus caused lowest mortality (21.67% at 2.7x109 spores mL-1), followed by B. bassiana (57.33% at 4.1x109 spores mL-1) and V. lecanii caused highest (97.33% at 3.9x109 spores mL-1). LC50 values at 96 h was calculated as 9.6x108, 1.3x108 and 2.36x1011 conidia mL-1 for B. bassiana, V. lecanii and P. fumosoroseus respectively. Hence, oil-based formulation of V. lecanii can be important castor pest P. ricini.
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