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Articles by K. Polasa
Total Records ( 6 ) for K. Polasa
  K. Nirmala , T. Prasanna Krishna and K. Polasa
  The present study involved the recognition of the effect of aqueous extract of ginger to prevent carcinogen-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex-in vivo by single cell gel electrophoresis technique in the presence and absence of ginger extract. Blood was obtained from 30 human volunteers of which 10 were apparently normal male non-smokers, 10 male smokers and 10 females. Aqueous ginger extract at three concentrations namely 2.5, 5 and 10 μg were tested for protective effect against B(a)P (300 μM) induced DNA damage. The results indicated that DNA damage expressed as comet ratio was decreased in samples treated with only B(a)P. When ginger extracts were present in incubation mixtures the comet ratios have increased depending on the dose of ginger extract. At the highest concentration of ginger extract namely 10 μg, the comet ratios were similar to their respective controls demonstrating the protective effect of ginger on carcinogen induced DNA damage.
  K. Nirmala , T. Prasanna Krishna and K. Polasa
  A link between diet and health has been appreciated by many cultures for centuries; however, an association between diet and cancer has been documented only in recent decades. The diet is likely the major source of human exposure to environmental carcinogens/mutagens and anticarcinogens/antimutagens. Spices and condiments that are important components of our diet are also used in traditional medicine to treat variety of ailments. Ginger has been used in Ayurveda to alleviate inflammation, pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and muscular discomfort. Literature evidence suggests that some of the active constituents present in ginger show anticancer activity by inhibiting tumorigenicity in animal model following topical application/feeding. Agents having genotoxic property exhibit antimutagenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It was shown in an in vitro experiment using single cell gel electrophoresis that ginger could inhibit benzo(a)pyrene, a well known carcinogen, induced cell damage, suggesting that ginger has antimutagenic potential. In order to investigate if this effect could be present even under in vivo conditions, a study was planned to investigate antimutagenic potential of ginger. Ginger powder was incorporated in the diet and fed to NIN male Wistar rats. At the end of one month of ginger feeding the rats were injected with 5 mg of benzo(a)pyrene by intraperitoneal route(ip). Twenty-four hours urine was collected before and after carcinogen exposure. The urine samples were analyzed for urinary mutagens by Ames test. The results indicated the antimutagenic potential of ginger under in vivo conditions using the strains TA 98 and TA 100 strongly suggesting that regular intake of ginger through diet is likely to confer protective effect against carcinogen induced mutation events. Since dietary components are subjected to cooking before consumption, an in vitro experiment was designed to assess the antimutagenic potential of ginger subjected to heat treatment. The antimutagenic activity of ginger was retained even after boiling and frying indicating that ginger consumed through diet can confer protection against mutational events.
  K. Nirmala , T. Prasanna Krishna and K. Polasa
  Spices and condiments consumed in Indian diets are one of the sources of phytochemicals and may act as antigenotoxicants. This study was taken up to evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of ginger in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples from apparently normal 18 males (9 male smokers and 9 male non smokers) and 9 females were obtained. 0.5 mL of whole blood in a total volume of 5 mL medium was cultured in the presence of 0.16 mM Trans Stilbene Oxide (TSO) for the induction of micronuclei. Aqueous ginger extract was added at concentrations namely 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg to test for antigenotoxicity. After 72 h, the cultures were processed and the cell suspension was fixed on slides and stained with 2% giemsa. The micronuclei were scored in 1000 binucleated cells and the data was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). It was found that at basal condition without ginger and TSO the Micronuclei frequency was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. In vitro treatment of peripheral blood lymphocytes with TSO induced significant number of micronuclei in all samples. Simultaneous treatment with ginger extract at all the concentrations significantly p<0.001 inhibited formation of micronuclei. A dose response relationship was observed. The extent to which ginger extract reduced the micronuclei formation induced by TSO exposure was almost normal or less than the control values. However, there were no changes in the vit. A and vit. E levels in all the groups. Results of the study indicate that ginger may protect against chromosomal damage induced by genotoxicant, as evidenced by this in vitro experimentation.
  K. Nirmala , Virendra V. Panpatil , A.K. Raja Kumar , N. Balakrishna , R. Balansky and K. Polasa
  Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that a plant-based diet can reduce the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The mechanisms through which some of the nutrients present in diet might protect against many diseases like cancer are not clear. Therefore, development of biomarkers suitable for investigating the molecular effects of dietary factors in animal and human studies is of great importance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the in vivo genotoxic effects of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] exposure in tissues of rats and the protective role of turmeric fed through diet. Rats were divided into four groups of twelve animals each and were fed diets containing turmeric at 1, 3, 5% and a control group without turmeric for a period of one month. At the end of the feeding period, half the animals from each group were given B(a)P (5 mg/rat; intra-peritoneal) and after 24 h all the animals were sacrificed and tissues such as liver, lung, kidney and femurs were collected and analyzed using different biomarkers of genotoxicity and oxidative damage. The results of the study showed that turmeric had no genotoxic or cytotoxic effect but had a protective effect against B(a)P toxicity by modulating the lipid peroxidation, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and DNA damage. Inhibition of the induction of micronuclei (MN) by turmeric indicates its protective potential against cytogenetic damage.
  K. Polasa , V.V. Annapurna , T. Prasanna Krishna and K. Krishnaswamy
  Three experiments were carried out to assess the antimutagenic potential of garlic or onion This was tested in, in vitro/in vivo models where mutagenicity was induced either with benzo (a) pyrene  (BP)/3-methyl-cholanthrene  (3MC),  using  Ames  test or  the comet assay. Also the effects of cooking  processes like boiling/frying on the antimutagenic potential of  these alliums were  tested by SOS inhibition  assay  using 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4 NQO) as the mutagen. In the first experiment, onion feeding at 1 and 5% in the diet inhibited the formation and excretion of urinary mutagens in dose dependent manner as indicated by decreased frequency of revertants in strains TA 98 and TA100 in the presence of urine belonging to rats fed onion and exposed to BP or 3MC. In the second experiment using SOS induction assay, both processed or unprocessed garlic exhibited dose dependent inhibition of SOS induction. However with boiled/unboiled onion this was not statistically significant. Studies with DAS also showed a dose dependent inhibition of SOS induction. No significant differences were observed in inhibition of SOS responses with processing of onion/garlic. These results indicate that the antimutagenic principle in garlic is not destroyed on heat treatment during cooking processes. In the third experiment, BP treatment resulted in comet induction (as judged by the comet ratio¬diameter/length) significantly as compared to control, both in liver and kidney tissues (p<0.001). Allium vegetables fed groups showed values similar to control group. As was observed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, a trend towards recovery from damage was noted both in liver and kidney tissue due to prior allium feeding. All these results show that alliums whether in the processed or unprocessed form can be used in diets to avert toxic effects of environmental carcinogens/genotoxicants and can be potent chemopreventive agents and cancer prevention is far more desirable alternative than treatment by surgery and drugs. The protection could be achieved even by very low intake level of allium in natural form through diet.
  Abhaykumar , K. Nirmala , M.P.R. Prasad , Virendra V. Panpatil , T. Prasanna Krishna , B. Sesikeran and K. Polasa
  Diallyl sulphide an active principle of garlic has been shown to have many medicinal properties. Thus present study is undertaken to see the effect of diallyl sulphide on platelet aggregation in women participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Women participants (18) with type 2 diabetes mellitus with >2 years duration formed the study group. The body mass index of the study group was 26±3.4 kg m-2 and age was 47±8.1 years. Platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate at 10 and 20 μM concentration was measured in platelet rich plasma. The effect of diallyl sulphide (2.2 μg) on platelet aggregation was seen after 1 min of incubation with platelet rich plasma. The women participants were divided into two groups (fast responders for adenosine diphosphate induced aggregation >5.0% slow responders aggregation <5.0%) based on maximal aggregation percentage. The participants had high abdominal circumference (102±9.4) and were hypertensive. Glucose (162.5±47.18) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels (11.7±2.82) suggest lack of metabolic control. The triglycerides levels (185±58.53) were also high. The platelet aggregation with adenosine diphosphate showed variation (10 μM adenosine diphosphate 2.0-81.0% and 20 μM adenosine diphosphate 9.0-93.0%) in fast responders group. The reduction in platelet aggregation with diallyl sulphide also varied with the participants. The relative reduction of adenosine diphosphate induced aggregation with aspirin ranged from 1.0-65.0%. The fibrinogen levels were in normal range. There was reduction in adenosine induced platelet aggregation by diallyl sulphide. The relative reduction in platelet aggregation by diallyl sulphide as compared to aspirin was higher in four participants in fast responder participants. The data unequivocally demonstrated the platelet aggregation inhibition properties of diallyl sulphide.
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