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Articles by K Shimokado
Total Records ( 2 ) for K Shimokado
  M Ai , A Tanaka , K Shimokado , R Ohtani , A Inazu , J Kobayashi , H Mabuchi , T Nakano and K. Nakajima

We found a unique cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficient case with markedly elevated serum triglyceride (TG) as well as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Most of the CETP deficiency cases were reported to have normal or reduced serum TG with elevated HDL-C.


The case subject was a 40-year-old male with a compound heterozygous CETP deficiency. Two heterozygous CETP deficient cases and 10 normal volunteers were also recruited as controls. They underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and their blood was taken at fasting and during the OFTT to be used for laboratory tests.


The case subject had apolipoprotein E (apo-E) phenotype 4/2 with fatty liver but without any cardiovascular disease. His serum TG, HDL-C, apo-AI and apo-B48 levels were significantly higher, but the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was lower than controls. Although post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase (both mass and activity) were nearly normal, the serum level of angiopoietin-like-protein-3 was extremely elevated. While his serum remnant-like particles-TG (RLP-TG) and total TG levels significantly increased after a fat load, the RLP-cholesterol (RLP-C) level did not increase during OFTT.


The case subject was different from the common CETP deficient cases reported previously. Also, the results indicated that the metabolic pathways of RLP-C and RLP-TG formation in the postprandial state are controlled independently in CETP deficient cases. CETP deficiency itself may not be atherogenic, while one with elevated RLPs may be atherogenic. These cases may have raised the controversy of whether CETP deficiency is atherogenic or not.

  T Chiba , C. Y Han , T Vaisar , K Shimokado , A Kargi , M. H Chen , S Wang , T. O McDonald , K. D O'Brien and J. W Heinecke

Adipose tissue secretes proteins like serum amyloid A (SAA), which plays important roles in local and systemic inflammation. Circulating SAA levels increase in obese humans, but the roles of adipose-derived SAA and hyperlipidemia in this process are unclear. We took advantage of the difference in the inducible isoforms of SAA secreted by adipose tissue (SAA3) and liver (SAA1 and 2) of mice to evaluate whether adipose tissue contributes to the circulating pool of SAA in obesity and hyperlipidemia. Genetically obese (ob/ob) mice, but not hyperlipidemic mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (Apoe–/–), had significantly higher circulating levels of SAA than their littermate controls. SAA1/2 mRNA expression in the liver and SAA3 mRNA expression in intra-abdominal fat were significantly higher in obese than thin mice, but they were not affected by hyperlipidemia in Apoe–/– mice. However, only SAA1/2 and the constitutive form of SAA (SAA4) could be detected in the circulation by mass spectrometric analysis of HDL, the major carrier of circulating SAA. In contrast, SAA3 could be detected in medium from cultured adipocytes. Our findings indicate that the expression of SAA3 in adipose tissue is upregulated by obesity, but it does not contribute to the circulating pool of SAA in mice.

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