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Articles by K Kim
Total Records ( 6 ) for K Kim
  H Seo , K. H Lee , H. J Kim , K Kim , S. B Kang , S. Y Kim and Y. H. Kim

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare low-dose unenhanced CT with standard-dose IV contrast-enhanced CT in the diagnosis of appendicitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two hundred seven adults with suspected appendicitis underwent CT with mean effective doses of both 4.2 and 8.0 mSv. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed thin-section images by sliding a 5-mm-thick ray-sum slab. They rated the likelihood of appendicitis and appendiceal visualization on 5- and 3-point scales, respectively, and proposed alternative diagnoses. Likelihood ≥ 3 was considered a positive diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristics analysis, the McNemar test, and the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test were used.

RESULTS. Seventy-eight patients had appendicitis. The values of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve were 0.98 for the low-dose unenhanced acquisition and 0.97 for the standard-dose contrast-enhanced acquisition for reader 1 (95% CI for the difference, -0.02 to 0.03) and 0.99 and 0.98 (-0.02 to 0.02) for reader 2. Sensitivity was 98.7% for low-dose unenhanced CT and 100% for standard-dose contrast-enhanced CT for reader 1 (p = 1.00) and 100% for both techniques for reader 2. Specificity was 95.3% and 93.0% (p = 0.25) and 96.9% and 96.9%. The interpretation was indeterminate (score 3) in 0.5% and 1.4% of cases for reader 1 (p = 0.63) and 0.5% and 0% for reader 2 (p = 1.00). A normal appendix was not visualized in 5.4% and 3.9% of cases by reader 1 (p = 0.63) and 3.9% and 2.3% of cases by reader 2 (p = 0.50). None of the patients whose appendix was not visualized had appendicitis. Diagnostic confidence, visualization score for a normal appendix, and correct alternative diagnosis tended to be compromised with use of low-dose unenhanced CT, showing a significant difference for a reader's confidence in the diagnosis of appendicitis (p = 0.004). The two techniques were comparable in the diagnosis of appendiceal perforation.

CONCLUSION. Low-dose unenhanced CT is potentially useful in the diagnosis of appendicitis.

  H. H Bailey , K Kim , A. K Verma , K Sielaff , P. O Larson , S Snow , T Lenaghan , J. L Viner , J Douglas , N. E Dreckschmidt , M Hamielec , M Pomplun , H. H Sharata , D Puchalsky , E. R Berg , T. C Havighurst and P. P. Carbone

Preclinical studies have shown that the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by -difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and resultant decreases in tissue concentrations of polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) prevents neoplastic developments in many tissue types. Clinical studies of oral DFMO at 500 mg/m2/day revealed it to be safe and tolerable and resulted in significant inhibition of phorbol ester–induced skin ODC activity. Two hundred and ninety-one participants (mean age, 61 years; 60% male) with a history of prior nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC; mean, 4.5 skin cancers) were randomized to oral DFMO (500 mg/m2/day) or placebo for 4 to 5 years. There was a trend toward a history of more prior skin cancers in subjects randomized to placebo, but all other characteristics including sunscreen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use were evenly distributed. Evaluation of 1,200 person-years of follow-up revealed a new NMSC rate of 0.5 events/person/year. The primary end point, new NMSCs, was not significantly different between subjects taking DFMO and placebo (260 versus 363 cancers, P = 0.069, two-sample t test). Evaluation of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell cancers separately revealed very little difference in squamous cell cancer between treatment groups but a significant difference in new BCC (DFMO, 163 cancers; placebo, 243 cancers; expressed as event rate of 0.28 BCC/person/year versus 0.40 BCC/person/year, P = 0.03). Compliance with DFMO was >90% and it seemed to be well tolerated with evidence of mild ototoxicity as measured by serial audiometric examination when compared with placebo subjects. The analysis of normal skin biopsies revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate–induced ODC activity (month 24, 36, and 48) and putrescine concentration (month 24 and 36 only) in DFMO subjects. Subjects with a history of skin cancer taking daily DFMO had an insignificant reduction (P = 0.069) in new NMSC that was predominantly due to a marked reduction in new BCC. Based on these data, the potential of DFMO, alone or in combination, to prevent skin cancers should be explored further. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 35–47

  K Kim , H. Y Kim , H. K Cho , K. H Kim and J. Cheong

Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme that synthesizes long-chain fatty acids, is involved in both normal lipid synthesis and cancer development. Overexpression and increased activity of FASN represents one of the most frequent phenotypic alterations in cancer cells. Multiple growth factors and growth factor receptors have emerged as major contributors to FASN overexpression. However, the ultimate mechanisms responsible for tumor-associated FASN overexpression are not completely understood. Here, we show that the stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis can induce the FASN expression via the nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, a major modulator of FASN transcription. We also identified that recombinant SDF-1-induced phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation was involved in the expression or activities of FASN. Finally, we demonstrated that FASN inhibition significantly reduced the SDF-1-mediated G1 cyclin expression and cell viability. Taken together, our findings manifest that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is a novel upstream pathway of FASN expression and is associated with mediating its prosurvival effect.

  Y. R Lee , K Tsunekawa , M. J Moon , H. N Um , J. I Hwang , T Osugi , N Otaki , Y Sunakawa , K Kim , H Vaudry , H. B Kwon , J. Y Seong and K. Tsutsui

Kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54 play important roles in mammalian reproduction and cancer metastasis. Because the KiSS and GPR54 genes have been identified in a limited number of vertebrate species, mainly in mammals, the evolutionary history of these genes is poorly understood. In the present study, we have cloned multiple forms of kisspeptin and GPR54 cDNAs from a variety of vertebrate species. We found that fish have two forms of kisspeptin genes, KiSS-1 and KiSS-2, whereas Xenopus possesses three forms of kisspeptin genes, KiSS-1a, KiSS-1b, and KiSS-2. The nonmammalian KiSS-1 gene was found to be the ortholog of the mammalian KiSS-1 gene, whereas the KiSS-2 gene is a novel form, encoding a C-terminally amidated dodecapeptide in the Xenopus brain. This study is the first to identify a mature form of KiSS-2 product in the brain of any vertebrate. Likewise, fish possess two receptors, GPR54-1 and GPR54-2, whereas Xenopus carry three receptors, GPR54-1a, GPR54-1b, and GPR54-2. Sequence identity and genome synteny analyses indicate that Xenopus GPR54-1a is a human GPR54 ortholog, whereas Xenopus GPR54-1b is a fish GPR54-1 ortholog. Both kisspeptins and GPR54s were abundantly expressed in the Xenopus brain, notably in the hypothalamus, suggesting that these ligand-receptor pairs have neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory roles. Synthetic KiSS-1 and KiSS-2 peptides activated GPR54s expressed in CV-1 cells with different potencies, indicating differential ligand selectivity. These data shed new light on the molecular evolution of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in vertebrates.

  H. J Paek , K Kim and T. Hove

Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics: message sensation value (MSV) and three types of message appeal (threat, social and humor). These four characteristics are then linked to YouTube’s interactive audience response mechanisms (number of viewers, viewer ratings and number of comments) to capture message reach, viewer preference and viewer engagement. The findings suggest the following: (i) antismoking messages are prevalent on YouTube, (ii) MSV levels of online antismoking videos are relatively low compared with MSV levels of televised antismoking messages, (iii) threat appeals are the videos’ predominant message strategy and (iv) message characteristics are related to viewer reach and viewer preference.

  K Kim , C. H Warden , S. M Griffey , J. G Vilches Moure , S Hansen , E Cuppen , I. J Nijman , S Chiu and J. S. Stern

We have previously shown that 90% of outbred obese Zucker Leprfa/fa rats die prematurely of renal disease. Thus, renal disease in obese Zucker Leprfa/fa rats may be caused by the LEPR mutation on chromosome 5, by the obesity, or it may be influenced by Zucker susceptibility alleles of genes on other chromosomes. We have searched for susceptibility genes on other chromosomes using urinary albumin excretion (UAE) as an early indicator of altered renal function in a backcross of (Brown Norway x inbred Zucker) F1 x inbred Zucker, which we name the BZZ cross. We killed 237 BZZ backcross animals at 15 wk of age. All included animals were homozygous for the fatty mutation of LEPR and were obese. Urinary creatinine measurements were used to calculate the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). We identified direct effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for UAE and ACR on chromosome 1 (LOD scores = 3.6 and 2.86, respectively) in males, and chromosome 4 (LOD score = 2.9) in females. Significant QTLs were identified for left kidney weight for females on chromosomes 3 and 12. We also demonstrated that kidneys from 15 wk old obese inbred Zucker rats already show evidence of kidney pathology: tubular dilation, proteinaceous fluid accumulation, evidence for inflammation, and mild mesangial and tubular membrane basement membrane thickening. Both lean Zucker rats and the Brown Norway rats showed no evidence for these changes. Thus, by removing the influence of the Leprfa/fa mutation from analysis we have identified UAE QTLs unlinked to LEPR.

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