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Articles by John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
Total Records ( 19 ) for John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Antony Muthian , Lawrence Nalathambi and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  The Laves phases binary intermetallic compound HfTi2 is one of the potential candidates for the storage of hydrogen. The knowledge on thermal properties of hydrogenated HfTi2 is important in order to use this material for hydrogen storage application. This study has reported important thermal properties such as phonon frequency distribution, defect modes, mean square displacement and diffusion parameters of H in the hydrogenated HfTi2 using lattice dynamical investigation involving green’s function method and scattering of phonons by defect space atoms.
  Siva Janakiraman , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The emergence of modern digitization has resulted in versatility to eradicate the divergence among the forms of information travel flanked by the users. This paper presents a pliable approach for the erratic block size selection in an impulsive mode to boost the level of sophistication in stego algorithm. An ingrained formula for key exchange, suggested in the algorithm combines the benefit of cryptography adjoining with steganography. In contrast to the usual implementations using generic software and personal computers, the suggested software development has been intense on an embedded device LPC 2378 with the RISC architecture that includes extensive support for networking through on-chip modules supporting ethernet and CAN protocols. The focal plan of this work includes elimination of key exchange for data encryption and improving the security to a massive level without compromising the image quality and embedding capacity. This endeavor shows the aptness of embedded hardware for stego implementations using an image carrier that makes soaring demand on memory; the extremely inhibited resource of embedded devices. The efficiency of the algorithm in maintaining image quality has been measured using the metrics MSE and PSNR. The enhancement in performance of embedded software, in terms of speed and code size have been analyzed under sophisticated compiler tools from KEIL MDK and IAREW.
  R. Sridevi , P. Philominathan , Padmapriya Praveenkumar , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Background: The agenda of secret and secured communication is in the lead list of digital communication schemes. Image encryption plays a lead role in both spatial and transforms domains. Materials and Methods: In this study, logistic and standard coupled mapping were employed on a pre and post shuffled image to attain the higher-order cryptic image to convey information between private nodes. The initial conditions to the maps were generated by a trigonometric function, which will provide sternness against hackers. Results: To analyse the rigidness of the implemented algorithm, the standard metrics, that is the Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI), Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR), entropy, correlation values, pixel distribution and histogram tests were estimated. The results were compared with the existing literature and found to be superior or comparable. Conclusion: First, the key space is 2256, which is considerably resistive to brute-force attack. Second, the obtained NPCR, entropy, correlation coefficient and UACI values of 99.6901, 7.99, -0.0015 and 33.44, respectively, prove that the proposed method resists statistical and differential attacks.
  Siva Janakiraman , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  In the wake of cyber era, digital crime takes its shape in the schemes of modern warfare piercing existing security system without any collateral damage. The then existent cryptic army was either unable to stop the foes or had won a pyrrhic victory and thus evolved the war veteran, steganography that could withstand any destructive mechanism forced against it. Hence, in this study, three novel steganographic methods have been proposed to enhance the randomness of the mercurial data. All the three methods are implemented using the pixel indicator technology. Method one of the three uses the chosen pixel for guidance and as data channel for embedding. Method two takes a block of three pixels at a time where the first pixel acts as the steering channel while the remaining two become the data channel. Method three is further bifurcated; the first segment of this method involves the size definition within the first four pixels of the image and determination of that type of number i.e., even, prime or other. Depending on the type the channels red, blue or green are chosen as indicators, respectively. The second segment is where the size\value is checked for even parity and odd parity. Depending on its evenness or oddness the combination of data channel for embedding is arranged i.e., size is an even number with an odd parity red is the steering channel while the order of data channels are green and blue. The bifurcation and levels of selections increase the contingency of the embedment while retaining its reticence. Results confirm that the proposed methodology yield lesser error metrics while creating an efficacious channel to secure data transmission.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , R. Deepak , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  In the era of wireless communication, the World Wide Web is the brain child of all the new technological development. This digital world has speeded up the data transfer and communication speed a manifold, creating new goods and services all along. Along with the development of internet, developed ways of hacking, modifying and stealing it also increased. There is an increasing demand to augment the data rates and to provide greater fidelity. Thus, technology provides us the finesse for increasing robustness over fading channels. The most prominent solution for increased speed is OFDM. And the security issues can be taken care of by embedding confidential data after encoding the message using cyclic codes.
  Siva Janakiraman , K.V.Sai Krishna Kumar , R.Rohit Kumar Reddy , A. Srinivasulu , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  The day to day amplification on technology and the demand on shrinking the device sizes reflect in the diminution on memory sizes and constraints on device outlay. In the present times of mass communication with the swift escalating technology, there is a dire necessity for security on the information traversing between authorized individuals. All these factors invite the property of light weightiness and the focused security algorithms such as Hummingbird for devices with humiliated resources. This study present an efficient software implementation of modified Humming Bird algorithm on an 8-bit microcontroller with randomization on sub-key selection based on LFSR. We also do comparative analysis on performance in terms of memory foot print and execution time between our modified one and the original algorithm implementations. The obtained results make it evident that the proposed method raises the complexity significantly without hike in resource consumption and makes it more suitable to provide security in extremely constrained devices.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Improved Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and variable higher data rates will pave a way to a brighter future for the next generation broadband applications of wireless communication. The OFDM system tolerates robustness against the multipath effects encountered by the fading channels. Enhanced system is achieved by using Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes. The attrition of errors in signals will increase the reliability of the system. In this study, secret data has been embedded after encoding the data using Convolutional encoders and passed over OFDM system. At the receiver end, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) helps better BER. The signals are passed over an OFDM receiver and decoded using Viterbi decoders.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Wireless communication is an incipient technique to increase portability, but is inept on grounds of security and capacity. Wireless communication coupled with multiple access techniques help in resolving these issues and aid in providing variable data rates. The security aspects can be palliated by using spread spectrum with information hiding mechanisms. This study analyses confidential data hiding using spread spectrum scheme added to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system adopting different modulation schemes. Performance analysis is done with and without confidential data embedding considering Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are compared and analysed with Multicarrier CDMA (MC CDMA) schemes using Bit Error Rate (BER) performance.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , P. Rajalakshmi , G.U. Priyanga , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Security has become the most indispensible part of any form of communication. There are different ways through which it is brought about, out of which one of the efficient implementation through steganography and encryption. Steganography conceals the existence of a secret message throughout the communication thereby providing enhanced security. In this study, a methodology has been proposed to perform encryption on an image with the help of Secret Steganography Code for Embedding (SSCE) code. A mapping technique has been proposed to combine quantum truth table and LSB based embedding. The SSCE has been employed to provide encryption, followed by quantum table before embedding the secret data. The proposed methodology supports both images and text as cover as well as secret data. In the proposed scheme, embedding has been included with encryption to provide security multifold. The implementation was carried out using Visual Basic. NET and results are presented.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Brobdingnagian may be the precise word for the usage of internet and advanced expertise in the globe in our day. Indeed, all sorts of this online communication go hand in hand with the so called major apprehension, information security. Since all kinds of digital files play an imperative role in internet operation, it is indispensable to defend the key features of private communication namely, seclusion, uprightness and legitimacy. This threat, in a roundabout way, has led to the breakthrough of information security rationales. Striking among these are Cryptography and Steganography, primordial skills pursued for the sake of secret sharing. The startling thing is that with the fruition of technology, these are giving prolific outcomes even now. Cryptography possesses such a litheness that its blend, in the company of other fields of study, facilitates offer much more options to explore security issues. This study envisions an inimitable approach to security in the context of encryption and embedding incorporating shuffling, chaotic equations in conjunction with Blowfish encryption algorithm. Here, encryption is performed on images followed by embedding secret data. The latter is done not literally but indirectly. This pitch endows with randomness and security with all the persuasive traits of encryption. Validation is given in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Relative Entropy (RE), entropy and correlation values. Experimental results are illustrated to vindicate the performance of this objective.
  Noel Nesakumar , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan , Beri Gopalakrishnan Jeyaprakash and Uma Maheswari Krishnan
  ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by solvothermal method by varying two different pH under harsh condition. Morphological change in ZnO nanoparticles from nanosphere to nanorods on varying pH from 11.0-10.7 was observed in Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM). And also, the size of ZnO nanoparticle formed at 11.0 pH was found to be 54 nm. The XRD patterns of ZnO nanoparticle showed polycrystalline nature of ZnO nanoparticle. FTIR peaks at 548 and 555 cm-1 confirmed the presence of ZnO nanoparticle formation. Again UV-visible absorption spectra showed cut off wavelength at 416 nm which revealed that the size of ZnO nanoparticles were in nanodimension.
  L. Brinda , K.S. Rajan and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are frameworks of 1-3D formed by the interaction between organic molecules and metal ions/clusters. The high specific surface area (~1000-5000 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (~0.7-2.5 cc g-1) of these molecules render them as ideal candidates for catalysis, gas absorption, separation of gases and sensing applications. The pore size and surface area can be tailored by modifying the synthetic conditions. In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOF-199 for potential application in enzyme-based sensing. MOF-199 was synthesized under room temperature using benzenetricarboxylic acid and a 1:1:1 mixture of DMF/ethanol/copper (II) acetate. Further, triethylamine (0.5 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and the resultant mixture was stirred for 23 h followed by drying to obtain a bluish crystalline material of MOF-199. The crystalline material was characterized using various analytical and microscopic techniques.
  N. Iswarya , M. Ganesh Kumar , K.S. Rajan and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Metal Organic Framework-5 (MOF-5) can be used for sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). VOCs are emitted from biological sources, paints, coatings, etc. and they pollute the environment thus posing serious health and environmental hazards. MOF-5 is a three dimensional crystalline coordination compound made up of Zn4O inorganic group as the vertex and benzene decarboxylate organic group as the spacer in the unit cell of the crystal. This study reported the synthesis and characterization of MOF-5 and its capability towards sensing of VOCs like ethanol, formaldehyde and acetone. Transmission Electron Micrograph reveals that the synthesized sample is highly crystalline and porous. BET surface area obtained was found to be 230 m2 g-1. MOF-5 was made into pellets of thickness around 3 mm for sensing purposes. The material was found to be sensitive towards ethanol even at concentrations as low as 5 ppm, towards formaldehyde at higher concentrations and towards acetone at concentrations as low as 10 ppm. The order of increase in sensitivity is ethanol>formaldehyde>acetone.
  Sivanantham Nallusamy , Balamurugan Deenadhayalan , Rajan KalpoondiSekar and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  The Ag-PANI nanocomposite material was coated on nanostructured ZnO thin film using the spray pyrolysis technique. Structural and optical characterization of the prepared ZnO/Ag-PANI nanocomposite thin film was carried out using FE-SEM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer , respectively. The chemical composition of the material was confirmed using the FTIR spectrometer. The sensing behaviour of ZnO/Ag-PANI nanocomposite film was studied towards the various concentrations of ethanol and Trimethylamine (TMA). Response and recovery of pure ZnO and ZnO/Ag-PANI nanocomposite thin film towards ethanol and TMA was compared.
  M.S. Inpasalini , R. Gayathri Devi , D. Balamurugan , B.G. Jeyaprakash and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  In the present study, thin film heterojunction based on n-CdO/p-NiO was fabricated on glass substrate by home built spray pyrolysis technique under optimized condition. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and Nickel chloride were used as precursors. Structural, surface morphology, optical and photovoltaic properties were analyzed and reported.
  Ganesh Kumar Mani , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Dillip Kumar Bisoyi
  Most of the developing countries are very rich in agricultural and natural fiber. Natural fibers are lignocellulosic in nature. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and biodegradable in nature. The natural fiber reinforced composite are dominated over the conventional composites because of the main advantage of low cost. Polymeric materials reinforced with natural fibers provide advantages of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio as compared to conventional construction materials. Natural fiber reinforced composites have gained popularity nowadays because of their processing advantage and good technical properties. The present work includes the processing, characterization of kapok fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Keeping in this view the present study has been undertaken to develop a polymer matrix composite (epoxy matrix) and kapok fiber (Reinforcement) and to study its structural and electrical properties. This study is concerned to investigate the percentage of crystallinity, surface structure, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and resistivity.
  T. Karthikeyan , B.G. Jeyaprakash and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Today, there is an increasing demand for sensors that includes home-security, military, industrial and clinical diagnosis. In the past, Fiber Optic based Sensor (FOS) has made profound impact due to its simple, room temperature detection and large range of detection species. In the present work, a simple optical fiber for sensing ethanol vapour was developed using borosilicate glass rod as core and Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposited zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as cladding materials. Structural studies carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method indicates, the ZnO film was polycrystalline hexagonal structure in nature with preferential orientation along (002) plane. Grain size obtained through line broadening technique was found to be 25 nm. The two ends of the fabricated fiber were connected to a diode laser source of 850 nm and optical power meter of 0.01 dBm accuracy as detector. The transmitted light intensity of the fabricated fiber found to changes in ethanol vapour atmosphere. The response and recovery time towards ethanol at room temperature as a function of cladding thickness and length were analysed and reported.
  Lakshmi Narasimha Acharya Kandala , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan , Jeyaprakash Beri Gopalakrishnan , Stalin Mano Gibson Manasai and Lawrence Nallathambi
  Lattice vibrational dynamics of nanostructured CdO lattice with two slightly different lattice constants (4.69 and 4.61 Å) has been investigated using Born von Karman model. CdO materials were prepared as thin film form on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique. An aqueous solution of 0.05 M Cadmium acetate is sprayed as fine mist on the preheated glass substrate at two different temperatures to form CdO thin film. The CdO films obtained at 220°C and 260°C have lattice constants of 4.69 and 4.61 Å, respectively. Born von Karman model was employed to obtain the dispersion relations of phonons and frequency density of states of the face centered cubic structured CdO crystals. Born Mayer potential was used to estimate the force constants of inter-atomic interactions between first five neighbors for both the CdO lattices. The dynamical matrix was constructed with the estimated force constants and hence eigen values and vectors were determined for a set of 73 wave vector points obtained from reciprocal lattice. The density of phonon states found to be accumulated in the higher frequency region. The amplitude of lattice vibration that is Debye Waller factor and lattice contribution to the specific heat capacity was estimated for various temperatures. A significant change in phonon dispersion, specific heat capacity and Debye Waller factor values have been observed between the nanostructured CdO crystals of different lattice constants.
  Muruganantham Chelliah , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Uma Maheshwari Krishnan
  Cerium oxide nanoparticles or nanoceria were synthesized by hydroxide mediated approach using cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3.6H2O and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as precursors. Structural and morphological studies of the cerium oxide nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRD pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the cerium nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. Crystallite size was calculated using Debye Scherrer formula and the size was found to be in the range of 9-16 nm. SEM studies revealed the formation of nanosized spherical particles around 18-30.4 nm. The absorption band at 550.84 cm-1 (Ce-O stretch) in FTIR spectrum confirmed the formation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Optical studies were carried out using UV-Visible absorbance spectrophotometry and a well defined absorbance peak was observed around 325 nm.
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