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Articles by Jochen Ringe
Total Records ( 1 ) for Jochen Ringe
  Ibrahim M.S. Eldeen , Jochen Ringe and Noraznawati Ismail
  Background and Objective: Bruguiera cylindrica is a mangrove tree species. It has various medicinal uses including usage for, lower blood pressure, bleeding, hemorrhage and ulcers. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatoid arthritis effects of the plant. Materials and Methods: Extracts obtained from the leaves and roots of the plant were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the enzymes: Cyclooxygenase-2, 5-Lipoxygenase and Acetylcholinesterase using the in vitro bioassay models. The GC-MS was used to determine the major active constituents. Synovial fibroblast cells were induced using TNF-α and IL-1 β and MTT cell viability assay was used to determine the cell viability of both, the normal and the induced cells. Results: The DCM leave extract showed the highest inhibitory effects against the 3 enzymes tested. Fraction 6 (the main constituent was 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid), possessed the strong activity against the 3 enzymes with inhibition percentage of 96% (IC50 = 56), 91% (IC50 = 44) and 89% (IC50 = 25) against 5-lipox, AChE and COX-2 enzymes, respectively. Fractions 1 and 3 (containing pyrrolidine related compound) showed inhibitory effects against the three enzymes with inhibition percentages ranging between 89 and 75%. The tested materials showed no cytotoxic effects at the highest concentration used (50 μg mL1) against the normal synovial cells but they possessed activities against the induced RA cell. The results indicated that the activities were dose-dependent. Conclusion: The metabolites obtained from B. cylindrica in this study possessed inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory enzymes and cell viability of the induced RA cell line. These results provide scientific validation of the bio-efficacy of B. cylindrica as a source of potential bioactive substances for the treatment of inflammatory and arthritis-related diseases. Further study is needed to assess the observed bio-efficacy on an in vivo experiment.
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