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Articles by Jihan M. Kassem
Total Records ( 7 ) for Jihan M. Kassem
  Fatma A.M. Hassan , Hayam M. Abbas , Jihan M. Kassem , Nagwa M. Rasmy , M.H. El Kalyoubi and M.F. Al- Okaby
  Olive oil (Olea europaea L.) which extracted by pressure system from Koroneiki olive fruit variety by using 2% NaCl during malaxation step was used in manufacture of modified butter blends. Different ratios (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w) olive oil/butter oil were applied to serve 4 treatments (A, B, C and D). The resultant modified butter blends were stored at 5±1°C for 6 weeks and assayed for organoleptic, physical and chemical properties. Obtained results showed that Free Fatty Acids (FFA) contents were increased by increasing oil percent either fresh or during cold storage. Peroxide Value (PV) took the same trend of FFA. On the other hand, Iodine Value (IV) increased by increasing the percent of olive oil and decreased gradually during storage at 5±1°C. Refractive Index (RI) was proportionally decreased by increasing of addition level of olive oil. Oxidative stability was also gradually increased by increasing percentage of oil and decreased during storage. Melting point took the same trend of RI. On the other, obtained data revealed that the modified butter blend made with 10% olive oil was the best treatment and it was acceptable for appearance, consistency and flavor. It gained the highest degrees, when fresh and during cold storage (5±1°C). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between oil percentage and storage period at (p≤0.05). On the other side, fatty acid profile indicated that palmatic acid (C16:0) as saturated fatty acids and oleic acid (C18:1) as mono unsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in control and all treatments. SO, it could be concluded that olive oil can be successfully used in preparing modified butter blend with good spreadability and satisfied properties.
  W. El-Kholy , Azzat B. Abd El-Khalek , Sahar H.S. Mohamed , Mohamed T. Fouad and Jihan M. Kassem
  Background and Objective: Probiotic functional dairy products are known of their positive impact on overall health. Also, mushroom has a healthy magical effect on human health. So, a new style Tallaga cheese which prepared by using some strains of probiotic bacteria and different ratios of mushroom was manufactured. Screening of some strains of probiotic bacteria for their antibacterial activity was applied. Methodology: Fresh buffalo milk samples were standardized to 4% fat, pasteurized, cooled to 37°C, inoculated with starter culture as well as probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri B-14171 at the same ratio (1%), salted and fortified with different ratios of mushroom to achieve four treatments. The first treatment was prepared without mushroom (control), while the other three treatments fortified with 3, 5 and 10% (w/v) mushroom to present T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Results: All milk cheese were turned to Tallaga cheese and stored at 7±2°C for 30 days. The fresh samples were analyzed for their gross composition; all stored samples were evaluated for their organoleptic properties, microbiology quality and some chemical parameters when fresh and after 7, 15 and 30 days at 7±2°C. Conclusion: Data revealed that adding mushroom up to 3% increased Total Bacterial Count (TBC), probiotic and lactic acid bacteria, while coliform group and mould and yeast were decreased. Mushroom had been pronouncly improved the sensory properties of resultant cheese especially in treatment (T1). It could be concluded that using of 3% mushroom and 1% L. reuteri B-14171 succeeded in prepared functional Tallaga cheese.
  Jihan M. Kassem
  Whey, that amazing solution, was considered in the past as a waste byproduct. Recently, scientists had discovered that whey have powerful components; which are whey proteins. Nutritional value of whey proteins had been recognized many years ago. Whey proteins have different fractions, some of them are in large concentration like (β-lactoglobulin, α- lactalbumin, serum albumin, immunoglobulins and glycomacropeptide) and others are in low concentration, such as (lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and proteose peptone component. Now a days, consumers become more aware of interest, nutritious, healthy foods, has driven much of the research into the healthful effects of whey protein and whey fractions. Whey proteins are magic, potent, promise and active components, which have many various nutritional and therapeutic benefits that encourage to search about them and collect the researches in a review paper to be a guide for all the requires and students. This review is focused on whey protein, its fractions and the therapeutic effect and their application in food processing and pharmaceutical field.
  Hayam M. Abbas , Fatma A.M. Hassan , Jihan M. Kassem , Nagwa M. Rasmy , M.H. El- Kaluobi and M.F. El- Okaby
  Olive oil was laboratorial extracted by pressure system from olive fruit variety Koroneiki by using different concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) during malaxation step. Using 2% NaCl was the best concentration where it enhanced oil extraction, improved the quality of the resultant oil as well as increased oil stability. The resultant olive oil was used in preparing of cheese yoghurt. Fermented buffalo milk (after adding the starter) was divided into three portions, the first portion serve as control while, the second and third part was fortified with 1 and 2% (w/w) of the extracted olive oil, respectively. The three portions were manufactured cheese yoghurt by the traditional method. Results revealed that samples manufactured by 1% olive oil gained the highest sensory scores, they possessed good flavor, acceptable body and texture and favorite appearance. These properties were gradually decreased with the progress of storage (after 2 weeks) to reach the minimum scores at the end of storage. Generally, the values of pH decreased during cold storage until 3 weeks; whereas, TS, TP increased in all treatments and TVFAs took the same trend. Acetaldehyde and diacetyl contents were also increased until 2 weeks then they began to decrease until the end of storage (3 weeks) in all treatments. Total viable count and lactic acid bacteria were gradually increased during storage at 5±1°C till the first week then it decreased through the remaining period of storage (2 weeks). Control and treatments behaved the same trend. Yeast and molds were not detected throughout storage. All samples were free of coliforms. So, It could be concluded that using of olive oil in preparing cheese yoghurt did not clearly affected the chemical and microbiological properties of the resultant product; however a noticeable improvement in the sensory properties was observed when used 1% olive oil.
  A.G. Mohamed , Hayam M. Abbas , Jihan M. Kassem , Hala M.A. Bayoumi , Salwa M. Kassem , Thanaa M.T. Shoman and Mahrousa M. Hassanane
  The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate processed cheese samples made by using two types of emulsifying salt. First treatment (T1) was prepared by using tri-sodium citrate (cheese 1), while second treatment (T2) achieved by using sodium polyphosphate (cheese 2). All cheese samples were analyzed for their physiochemical properties and organoleptic characteristics. On the other side, cytogenetics evaluation including chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells, DNA damage and micronucleus tests were carried out in male mice treated with cheese 1 and 2. Moreover, the effect of cheese 1 and 2 on liver function and kidney function in male mice were also studied. The results revealed that cheese 1 possessed high values of meltability and oil separation and low values of penetration compared with cheese 2. The genotoxicity study revealed that male mice treated with cheese 1 and 2 expressed significant increment in the chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and micronucleus formation compared to control mice. In addition, levels of ALT, AST and ALP as well as creatinine, urea and uric acid were markedly increased in male mice treated with cheese 1 or 2 compared with control mice. However, cheese 2 was more effective in increase the genetic toxicity than cheese 1.The present results revealed that use of tri-sodium citrate and sodium polyphosphate in cheese processing increased the oxidative stress in male mice that increased the toxicity response on genetic materials, liver and kidney functions. So, an urgent demand for searching new materials used as emulsifying agents is still need.
  A.G. Mohamed , Hayam M. Abbas , Jihan M. Kassem , Walid A. Gafour and A.G. Attalah
  A new approach to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms or protect food from oxidation is using of essential oils or plant extracts. Among the antimicrobial agents, Commiphora myrrha is considered as natural and safe materials. The antimicrobial activity of Commiphora myrrha-essential oil against different species of pathogenic gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria were investigated. Data revealed that all tested microorganisms were susceptible to the action of Commiphora myrrha. Their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranged from 2-5 μL mL–1 for all microorganisms. Processed Cheese Spreads (PCSs) samples were prepared by using five ratios of Commiphora myrrha-Essential Oil (EO) to evaluate their properties and their acceptability. Their properties were estimated through one year of storage at 5±2°C. Obtained results showed that using 2% (w/w) Commiphora myrrha-EO for preparing PCS gave satisfactorily sensory properties. The appearance was well shiny; gumminess and oil separation were absent. The penetration of satisfied treatment of myrrh (2%) was (33.5, 32.0, 31.2, 30.00 and 29.20 mm) compared to control samples (33.0, 30.5, 26.5, 25.1 and 24.5 mm) when fresh and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. On the other hand, meltability took the same trend; the treated-samples gained 85.4, 81.6, 80.0, 79.1 and 78.2 mm comparing with control samples 81.6, 80.5, 78.7, 77.1 and 76.6 mm, respectively. Therefore, it could be concluded that using of 2% w/w Commiphora myrrha-essential oil produced acceptable and satisfied processed cheese spreads and it could be used as a natural preservation in dairy products.
  Hayam M. Abbas , Afaf O. Ali , Jihan M. Kassem and Wafaa M. Zaky
  Objective: This study aims to evaluate the variation in different kinds of Egyptian milk from the chemical point of view. Materials and Methods: Twenty five individual samples of different types of milk (buffalo, cow, goat, sheep and camel) were collected from lactating animals in different Egyptian districts in winter season. Samples of each type (species) were mixed to serve five bulk samples to be analyzed for their chemical composition (total solids, protein, fat, ash, lactose, galactose, amino acids, fatty acids and minerals). Results: Data evidenced that sheep milk had the highest protein and fat values. Analysis of mineral contents showed that goat milk had the highest content of sodium and the lowest contents of Ca, P, K and Zn. While, sheep milk have the highest contents of Ca and P. However, buffalo milk contains the highest values of Mg, Zn and Mn versus the lowest value of Na. Camel milk characterized by the highest content of K. On other hand, cow milk was rich in saturated fatty acids, while sheep milk was rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Goat milk samples revealed the highest values of all essential amino acids except tyrosine, which was high in sheep milk samples. Lactose content was the highest in cow followed by goat milk while buffalo milk contained the lowest amount. On the other side, camel milk had the highest value of galactose rather than all other types. Conclusion: It is concluded that milk of different species of Egyptian ruminants have great variations in biochemical constituents and this is reflected on their different nutritional and health benefits.
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