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Articles by J.U. Anyika
Total Records ( 12 ) for J.U. Anyika
  J.U. Anyika and C.A. Echendu
  The need to determine the effect of family size on body weight and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of adolescent female secondary and university students in Abia State, Nigeria, is very important for this study. One hundred and sixty adolescent girls aged 10-19 years were used for the study. Data for this report was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of two boarding secondary schools [one school from Umuahia North Local Government Area (LGA) and the other from Ikwuano LGA] and two tertiary institutions (one school from Umuahia North LGA and the other from Ikwuano LGA) in Abia State, Nigeria. A structured self-administered questionnaire designed to collect information on socio-economic status of adolescent girls was given to the respondents in their schools. A sample of 160 adolescent girls was used for body weight and iron status of the blood. Forty adolescent girls were systematically selected from each school. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the interrelationship between variables. Results showed that the secondary school girls had larger family size than their university counterparts (41.75% vs 40.0%) respectively. The secondary school adolescents also had lower mean body weight which differed significantly from those of the university students (p<0.05). The mean PCV of both the secondary school and university students were low and comparable (p>0.05). For the secondary school students, Pearson’s correlation showed that family size had negative but significant relationship with PCV (r = -0.362, p<0.05). Body weight had negative but significant relationship with PCV (r = -0.164, p<0.05). For the university students, family size had negative but significant association with body weight and PCV (r = -0.380, p<0.05 and r = -0.008, p<0.05) respectively. This study showed that family size had an effect on body weight and PCV of both secondary school and University adolescent girls in Abia State.
  J.U. Anyika , I.C. Obizoba and P. Ojimelukwe
  Forty-eight adult Wistar albino male rats (75-128g) of age 8 weeks were used to study the effect of dehulled African yam bean (DYB) and dehulled soaked bambara groundnut combined with sorghum or crayfish on food intake, weight gain, liver weight and composition of rats fed for 10 days. Three out of the ten days were for adjustment and the rest for the balance period. Eight diets were formulated and fed to the rats. The mixed protein diets provided 10% protein daily for the entire study period. Casein (CA) served as a reference protein. Rats fed dehulled bambara groundnut brown (DBGB) and sorghum soaked for 18 hours (S18) had the least food intake, weight gain, liver weight and liver nitrogen (N). Dehulled African yam bean (DYB) supplemented with sorghum soaked for 18 hours (S18) had the highest liver lipids which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the other test groups and control (Casein). DYB:S18 also has the least liver moisture which was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the other test groups and casein. Addition of crayfish (CR) to soaked brown bambara groundnut (SBGB) and sorghum soaked for 24 hours (S24) produced significant increase (P < 0.05) in liver N (183.7g) but a significant decrease in liver lipids (3.2g). As judged by liver nutriture, SBGB:S24: CR appears to be a better supplement than the test groups and control. This result suggested that different cultivars, varietal difference and treatment affected food intake, weight gain, liver weight and composition of rats fed dehulled African yam bean (DYB) and bambara groundnut supplemented with sorghum and/or crayfish.
  J.U. Anyika , A.C. Uwaegbute , A.O. Olojede and J.U. Nwamarah
  A total of 160 adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years were surveyed for nutrient intake. Three-days weighed food intake was the technique used for this study. Subjects were from model secondary schools and universities in Abia State, Nigeria. The values for food nutrients were calculated using food composition tables. Foods that were not in the food composition tables were analyzed chemically in the laboratory to know their nutrient contents. Values from the chemical analysis were used for the calculation of food nutrients. The mean intakes in all the nutrients tested for adolescent female university students were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of adolescent female secondary school girls. Both adolescent female secondary school and university students, however, had nutrient intakes higher than FAO requirements except for iron intake where the secondary school girls did not meet the requirement for iron (36-42 g/day). Snacks contribution to the daily nutrient intakes of the adolescent female secondary school students were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the university students except for the carbohydrate intake (146.66 g vs 170.26 g) respectively. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the quality of meals and snacks served to both secondary school and university students to know their contribution to nutrient intake in order to alleviate the problem of malnutrition in adolescent female Nigerian students.
  J.U. Anyika , Obizoba I.C. and J.U. Nwamarah
  Forty-eight adult Wistar albino male rats (75-128 g) of age 8 weeks were used to study the effect of processing on the protein quality of African Yam Bean (AYB) and Bambara Groundnut (BG) supplemented with sorghum or crayfish. The rats were fed for 10 days. Three out of the ten days were adjustment and the rest for the balance period. Eight diets were formulated and fed to the rats. The mixed protein diets provided 10% protein daily for the entire study period. Casein (CA) was served as a reference protein. The N content of the food, urine and feces were analyzed using AOAC (1980) procedure. As judged by protein quality, rats fed the control diet had significant decreases (p<0.05) in all the parameters tested except for digested N (0.91 g) urinary N (0.11 g) and apparent digestibility (94.79%). Addition of an equal amount of Crayfish (CR) to sorghum (S) as a supplement decreased food intake, N intake and Nitrogen Balance (NB) in both Dehulled African Yam Bean (DAYB) and Soaked Brown Bambara Groundnut (SBBG). Dehulling of White Bambara Groundnut (DWGB) resulted to increases in all the parameters tested except for urinary N (0.05 g) and apparent digestibility (84.68%) as compared to the brown variety. Soaking of White Bambara Groundnut (SWBG) decreased protein quality in all the parameters tested as compared with the brown variety except for Biological Value (BV) (94.12%) and Net Protein Utilization (NPU) (76.92%). As judged by N intakes (1.24 g) digested N (1.05 g) and biological value (95.24%) the DWGB:S18 diet appears to contain much more desirable pattern of Essential Amino Acid (EAA) than the other test diets. The result showed that it could be of great importance to people living in areas where these foods are staple.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba , J.U. Anyika and P.C. Ojimelukwe
  This study focused on the changes in the chemical composition of treated and untreated hungry rice “Acha”. Nutrient composition and antinutritional factors were studied using standard methods of analysis. The results of analyses revealed that hungry rice fermented for 108 h (FHR108) had significantly higher Crude Protein (CP) (9.94%), True Protein (TP) (9.34%), True Nitrogen (TN) (1.49%), Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) (0.10%) and fat (3.08%) (p<0.05). Fermentation for 48 h (FHR48) had the highest copper (Cu) (3.26 mg), manganese (Mn) (1.38 mg), zinc (Zn) (1.62 mg), phosphorus (Ph) (160.89 mg) and iodine (I2) (103.33 mcg) than others (p<0.05). Untreated Hungry Rice (UTHR) had the highest tannins (0.13 mg), phytate (1.22 mg) and Trypsin Inhibitors (TI) (38.45 mg). Based on this study, cooking and fermentation increased both proximate and mineral composition in treated samples but decreased antinutritional factors in most parameters tested. Cooking and fermentation could be used by most rural and poor urban dwellers to increase nutrient content of their diets.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba , E.K. Ngwu and J.U. Anyika
  Chemical composition of pottage dishes based on Groundbean (GB) and roasted GB as eaten were investigated using standard methods. Results showed that cocoyam-GB pottage had higher protein value (3.70%) than yam (2.10%) and plantain-GB dishes (2.82%).The ash, fat and fibre levels in yam-GB pottage were more (0.99, 27.23 and 4.70%, respectively) than other dishes and the roasted GB (p<0.05). The plantain-GB pottage contained more carbohydrate (46.49%) than other pottage dishes and higher energy than all others. Roasted GB however, contained comparatively higher protein (14.00%), carbohydrate (68.68%) and most mineral element values than the pottage dishes (p<0.05). However, cocoyam-GB pottage had higher values for zinc and iodine (p<0.05) and relatively more antinutrients than all others with the exception of oxalate which was present in only roasted GB. The findings suggest that these dishes would greatly contribute to total daily nutrient intake of consumers and add to local food composition table data bank.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba and J.U. Anyika
  This study evaluated the effects of germination on the chemical composition of groundbean seeds. The seeds were cleaned, soaked for 8h and germinated for 0-4 days. The samples were separately dried and milled to fine flours. The flour samples were analyzed for proximate, mineral and antinutrient composition using standard methods. Results showed that groundbean germinated for 72h (GGB72) had the highest proximate composition which was significantly different from the rest (p<0.05) except for groundbean germinated for 96h (GGB96) in fibre (1.22%) and CHO (67.40%) in groundbean germinated for 0h (ungerminated). Groundbean germinated for 48h (GGB48) proved to be more beneficial in most mineral content than the rest of the germination periods (p<0.05). Antinutrient content was highest in groundbean germinated for 48h (GGB48) except for tannin. The study showed that 72h of germination of groundbean (GGB72) proved to be the best for highest nutrient content while germination for 48h increased antinutrient content.
  C.A. Echendu , I.C. Obizoba and J.U. Anyika
  This study evaluates the effects of heat treatments on chemical composition of Groundbean (GB). Groundbean seeds were cleaned, soaked, dehulled and cooked for varying periods. The samples were separately dried and milled into fine flours. The flour samples were analyzed for proximate, minerals and antinutrients composition using standard methods. Results showed that proximate composition of all samples varied. The Untreated Groundbean (UTGB) had the highest proximate composition which was significantly different from all nutrients tested (p<0.05) except for fibre (3.65%) in Undehulled Cooked Groundbean (UDCGB) and Carbohydrate (CHO) content (63.63%) in Soaked Dehulled Cooked Groundbean (SODCGB). SOGB had the highest iron (Fe) (6.80 mg), calcium (Ca) (52.53 mg), sodium (Na) (1.48 mg), manganese (Mn) (20.78 mg) and zinc (Zn) (2.34 mg) content which were significantly different from others (p<0.05). UTGB had the highest Copper (Cu) (3.89 mg), magnesium (Mg) (1.46 mg), Phosphorus (Ph) (345.45 mg), Potassiun (K) (263.80 mg) and Iodine (I2) (102.18 mcg/g) which was significantly different from others (p<0.05). The antinutrient composition of all samples was low except for Trypsin Inhibitor (TI) where UTGB had the highest TI (29.45 mg) which was significantly different from the rest. The result indicates that groundbean is safe for human consumption and could be used in the formulation of diets for children and adults.
  P.K. Emebu and J.U. Anyika
  The study examined the vitamin and antinutrient composition of Kale (Brassica oleracea) grown in Delta State, Nigeria. Fresh Kale leaves Fresh kale leaves were obtained at Ogbogonogo market in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. Random selection of leaves was done by purchasing from randomly selected sellers in the market. The purchased leaves were cleaned by washing with clean water to remove dirt and other contaminants and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Vitamins present in kale include vitamin C (23.43 mg/100 g), vitamin E (4.06 mg/100 g) and vitamin A (11.25 mg/100 g). Antinutrient content of kale was found to be in very minute amounts: Phytate (0.12 mg/100 g), oxalate (0.08 mg/100 g), tannin (0.15 mg/100 g). Based on the findings from this study, kale (Brassica oleraceae), though a lesser known vegetables, has enormous nutritional potentials. Therefore numerous homemakers and others who habitually cook with common vegetables are encouraged to see the need for diversification so as to tap into the benefits of other lesser known vegetable such as Kale.
  P.K. Emebu and J.U. Anyika
  The study examined the proximate and mineral composition of Kale (Brassica oleracea) grown in Delta State, Nigeria. Fresh kale leaves were obtained from Ogbogonogo market in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. Random selection of leaves was done by purchasing from randomly selected sellers in the market. The purchased leaves were cleaned by washing with clean water to remove dirt and other contaminants and sent to the laboratory for analysis. From the results, kale was found to be a good source of vegetable protein (11.67%) and fiber (3.0%). Other proximate parameters include; moisture (81.38%), ash (1.33%), fat (0.26%), carbohydrate (2.36%) and energy (58.46 kcal/100 g). Observed mineral content were: sodium (4.69 mg/100 g), potassium (7.03 mg/100 g), calcium (4.05 mg/100 g), iron (8.94 mg/100 g), zinc (2.16 mg/100 g) and magnesium (6.69 mg/100 g). Kale (Brassica oleracea) has a high potential as a vegetable in the preparation of different Nigerian dishes and treatment of various diseases due to its nutritional potentials. No wonder the local nick-name “hospital too far”.
  A.C. Oburuoga and J.U. Anyika
  This study evaluated nutrient and antinutrient composition of mungbean, acha and crayfish flours with a purpose of blending them for the production of breakfast cereals. The mungbean grains, acha grains and crayfish were cleaned. A part of the mungbean grains were dehulled. The samples were separately dried and milled into fine flours. The flour samples were analyzed for proximate, mineral and antinutrient composition using standard methods. Results showed that the crude protein, crude fat and ash contents were highest in crayfish (64.30%, 9.20% and 11.47% respectively) and these differed significantly from other samples (p<0.05). Undehulled mungbean had the highest fibre content (4.34%) while carbohydrate values were highest in acha (73.40%). Crayfish had the highest values in all the minerals studied with the exception of iodine which was present in traces. Phytate and tannin contents were highest in undehulled mungbean (576.23 mg/100 g and 331.15 mg/100 g) respectively, while acha had the highest oxalate content (265.30 mg/100 g). The nutrient and antinutrient composition of these flours show that they have nutrient potential and their blends could be explored for the production of breakfast cereals and other food products.
  J.U. Anyika , A.C. Uwaegbute , I.A. Onimawo and C.A. Echendu
  This cross-sectional survey evaluated the effect of contraceptives on menstrual cycle, menstrual flow and weight gain of adolescent female secondary and university students in Abia State, Nigeria. One thousand, six hundred (1600) adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were used for the study. Two secondary schools and two universities [(one secondary school/university from each Local Government Area (LGA)] were randomly selected. A structured self-administered questionnaire designed to collect information on health habits of adolescent girls was given to respondents in their schools. Information gathered from the questionnaires was coded and analyzed using the computer program Statistical Software package (SAS). Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used. Results showed that majority (70.5% vs 58.75%) of adolescent university and secondary school girls, respectively described their menstrual cycle as regular (every month). A wide variety of contraceptives namely abstinence, safe period, intrauterine devices, vaginal jellies and creams and oral contraceptives were used by the students. Majority (60.97% vs 48.74%) of the subjects in the university and secondary school respectively reported that the contraceptives they used had no effect on their menstrual flow. Almost equal percentage of respondents (33.92% vs 33.49%) of the secondary school and university adolescents respectively reported that their menstrual cycle was regular every time. The study showed that abstinence and safe period were the most commonly used birth control methods by both secondary and university adolescent girls in Abia State, Nigeria.
 
 
 
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