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Articles by J.O.A. Okoye
Total Records ( 4 ) for J.O.A. Okoye
  O.J. Ibu , J.O.A. Okoye , E.P. Adulugba , K.F. Chah , S.V.O. Shoyinka , E. Salihu , A.A. Chukwuedo and S.S. Baba
  Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute rapidly spreading, contagious, nervous and respiratory disease of domestic and wild birds caused by the Avian Paramxyovirus 1, the Newcastle disease (ND) virus. ND is endemic in Nigeria. The reservoir status of wild and captive birds for ND virus in central Nigeria is assessed in this study. Cloacal swabs were taken from one hundred and sixty three birds caught from five Local Government Council areas of Plateau, Benue and Kaduna States in central Nigeria. A total of thirteen ND Viruses were isolated from the three States. Viz: 8 isolates from Plateau, 4 from Benue and 1 from Kaduna State. One hundred and fifty three of the birds sampled belonged to 30 avian species in 10 Orders while ten birds were unidentified. Only 7% of the species in three Orders yielded ND viruses. The 13 isolates were characterized using the Mean death time of the Minimum lethal dose (MTD/MLD); Intracerebral Pathogenicity index (ICPI) Intravenous Pathogenicity index (IVPI) and the Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR). The results show that 12 of the isolates were of the lento genic strain while 1 isolate belonged to the Merogenic strain. The implication of these findings on the poultry industry in the country is discussed.
  O.J. Ibu , J.O.A. Okoye , S.S. Baba , S.V.O. Soyinka , K.F. Chah , J. Antiabong , D. Eze , E.A. Salihu and S.B. Oladele
  The study was carried out to assess the Haemagglutinin thermostability of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from wild birds in three climatically distinct states in central Nigeria. Identification of heat stable ND virus isolates from the locality will provide environmentally friendly thermostable vaccine candidates for rural poultry. The 12 field virus isolates and the 5 vaccine virus strains showed variable degrees of heat stability. Three field isolates each was inactivated in 5 min, three in 10 min and one in 15 min. One isolate was inactivated in 20 min while two and three strains got inactivated in 25 and 30 min respectively. The most thermostable of the field isolates was inactivated in 40 min. A more thermostable clone was subsequently derived from the latter strain as a local vaccine candidate. For the vaccine strains, NDV (I/O) and NDV (K) were inactivated in 20 min while NDV (L) was inactivated in 25 min. The velogenic strain (Herts) was inactivated in 40 min. The two established thermostable strains, NDV4 and NDVI2 were inactivated in 90 min each. The thermostable profile of the field virus strains did not vary with the climatic background of the isolates.
  E.C. Okwor , J.O.A. Okoye and D.C. Eze
  The nervous signs of torticollis and paralysis in chickens affected with velogenic viscerotropic strains of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) are most often preceded by other common signs associated with velogenic Newcastle Disease (ND). This study was carried out to investigate the time of detection of NDV in the brain of affected chickens compared with the time of detection in other organs. Velogenic NDV (VGF-1) was obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. Nigeria. A total of 120 white cockerels were used for the experiment. At 6 weeks of age, the birds were divided into two groups of 80 and 40, the first group of 80 served as the infected group, while the second group served as control. Birds in the infected group were challenged each with 0.2 mL of this isolate each containing embryo infective dose 50% end point (EID50) of 106.36. Birds in the control group were inoculated with 0.2 mL of Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS). Clinical signs and post mortem lesions were observed and recorded. Internal organs including the brain, proventriculus, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were collected at Post Mortem (PM) from the infected group and after sacrifice from the control group on days 5, 6, 7 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 21 Post Inoculation (PI). The organs collected on each day (five from infected and three from control) were pooled together on the basis of organs. Tissues extracts were prepared to constitute 80% suspension in PBS by homogenizing the pooled organs and using 4 gm of this with 1 mL of PBS. Each was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 30 min and the supernatant collected. The supernatant was assayed for NDV using Haemagglutination (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) tests. Results showed typical clinical signs and PM lesions associated with velogenic ND. However, paralysis and torticollis appeared among few birds later in infection as compared to other signs of dullness, reduction in feed and water intake and greenish diarrhea. HA activity was seen in tissues extracts prepared from the brain by day 10 PI as compared to other organs, where it was detected earlier at day 5 PI. It was concluded that after viraemia, viruses multiplied first in non-nervous tissues and later in the nervous tissues. A possible explanation for this delay could be the role played by the blood-brain barrier in restricting the rate of infection of the nervous tissues. This may also explain why nervous signs appeared later in infection.
  W.S. Ezema , E.P. Aba Adulugba , J.N. Luther and J.O.A. Okoye
  Twelve outbreaks of African swine fever were studied in Nsukka and Enugu areas of Enugu state, Nigeria. Mortalities were 90-100% in all the farms. Spleen and lymph nodes were swollen. Section of the spleen showed infarcts. Both spleen and lymph nodes had severe necrosis and depletion of lymphocytes. Massive infiltration of the bronchioles and alveoli by eosinophilic exudates occurred in the lungs. Dilatation of the sinusoids and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed in the liver. The outbreaks were diagnosed by ASF antibody detection in serum samples by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and by antigen detection in lymph nodes by immunofluorescent test. It was concluded that the virus involved in the outbreaks are similar to the existing pathotypes.
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