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Articles by J.C. Akan
Total Records ( 7 ) for J.C. Akan
  J.C. Akan , F.I. Abdulrahman , V.O. Ogugbuaja and J.T. Ayodele
  Problem section: Effluents from the surrounding industries such as tannery and textile are used by vegetable farmers for the irrigation of their crops. These effluents may contain some toxic metals which bioaccumulate along the food chain. Moreover the uptake of such toxic metals by crops is governed by their availability and concentration in the soil. Therefore such crops may accumulate heavy metals in excessive amount in their various parts. This may ultimately, adversely affect humans and other species that depend on such crops for food, hence the need to evaluate the pollutant levels in vegetables samples in these areas. Approach: Six vegetable samples of various organs were freshly harvested from ten farms within the vicinity of Challawa industrial areas. The concentration of heavy metals which include, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Mg, Fe, Cr, Cd As, Ni and Pb, were determined using Perkin-Elmer analyst 300 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Levels of some anions (nitrate, nitrite, sulphate and phosphate were determined using Hach direct reading 2000 Spectrophotometer. Results: The results obtained from this analysis revealed that Cr and Fe shows the highest concentrations, while As shows the lowest levels in the whole vegetable organs studied. The concentrations of the anions ranged between 40.00-1300.00 µg g-1 nitrite, 65-1500 µg g-1 nitrate, 122.00-765.00µg g-1 and 12.00-60.00 µg g-1. The leaves contained much higher concentrations of heavy metals and anions than roots and stems. Conclusions: The concentrations of the above parameters were higher than the FAO, WHO/EU and FAO/WHO allowed limit. The high values might be attributed to the used of untreated effluents from textile and tanneries industries by farmers for the irrigation of these vegetables. Thus, the high values of these trace metals and anions in the vegetable samples could put the consumers of these vegetables at health risk. Further works should be carried out in the soil samples were the vegetables are grown.
  G.A. Dimari , F.I. Abdulrahman , J.C. Akan and S.T. Garba
  An analysis of intestine, liver, stomach and gill tissue concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd and Zn) in three commercially important fish species (Tilapia gallier, Crarias lazera and Osteoglossidae. caught within Alau Dam between the periods of January to August, 2007. These heavy metals were determined using Perkin-Elmer AAnalyst 300 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Heavy metals contents varied significantly (p>0.05) depending on the fish species and on the types of tissues. The concentration of heavy metals in livers and gills tissue were relatively higher than the intestine and stomach tissues of the three species. The distribution of copper and cobalt were in the order of gills>stomach>liver>intestine in the entire fish samples, while the distribution of (Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd and Zn) were in the order of liver>gills>stomach>intestine. The concentrations of the entire elements in the three species were within tolerance limits that are safe for human consumption, with exception of lead in gills.
  E.A. Moses , V.O. Ogugbuaja , P.A. Onyeyili and J.C. Akan
  Organic composition and toxicity of dusts collected in and around Maiduguri metropolis were investigated. High performance liquid chromatographic technique was used to determine the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene, naphthalene, benzene and pyridine) in the samples. Haematological parameters, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), White Blood Cell counts (WBC), Haemoglobin estimation (HB) and Red Blood Cell (RBC) counts were used as biomarkers to identify possible toxic effects of exposure to dust samples. Low concentrations (0.0157 ±0.002 and 0.0133 ±0.004 mg g-1) of anthracene and naphthalene were measured on the dust samples while benzene and pyridine were not detected. Intravenous and intratracheal administration of dust decreased significantly (p<0.05) the RBC, Hb and PCV in goats when compared to the control group. The values of WBC however increased when dust was administered intratracheally and intravenously. The result obtained do not suggest any evidence of substantial anthropogenic pollution of this environment
  J.C. Akan , E.A. Moses , V.O. Ogugbuaja and J. Abah
  The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02±0.13 to 1.56±0.06 mg L-1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg L-1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.
  J.C. Akan , E.A. Moses and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  The uncontrolled releases of waste effluents to large water bodies have deleterious effects both on water quality and aquatic life. Kano, an industrial city in Nigeria has the largest number of tanneries in the country is facing the problems of impairment of water quality. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Mn, Pb, Fe and Cr) were determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometric methods. pH, Redox potential (Eh), Temperature, Dissolve Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolve Solid, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined. Results showed high levels of Cr (2.70±0.57 to 3.12±0.69 mg L-1), Fe (1.21±0.13 to 1.61±0.41 mg L-1) and these values were found to be significantly higher than the maximum permissible limits of FEPA (p<0.05). Levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Co were within the minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. Increases, in concentrations of heavy metals with distance from point source up to a distance of 400 metres were observed. While anion concentration decreased with distance from point source up to a distance of 400 m. Adherence to pollution control measures and effluent pre-treatment should be enforced in the industries.
  G.A. Dimari , F.I. Abdulrahman , J.C. Akan and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Total suspended particulate matter was collected using SKC side kick sampling pump method from Shukwari Ward of Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria between the periods of January to December, 2004 and was analyzed for 13 elements by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method. The concentrations of the elements in the entire quarter range from 0.02-5.12 μg m-3. The highest elemental concentrations were observed in the order second quarter (April-June) >first quarter (January-March) >forth quarter (October-December) >third quarter (July-September). The results showed that the concentration of Na, Zn and Ni were highest in the suspended particulate matter, while Cr, Mn and Mg were low. Significant positive linear correlation coefficients among elements in the suspended particulate matter were established, indicating common sources of heavy metal pollution. The concentration of SO4-2- ranged from 250 to 312.50 μg m-3 while NO3- ranged from 9900.00 to 15033.33 μg m-3. The concentrations of the elements, SO42- and NO3 in the suspended particulate matter exceeded the limits set by WHO and FEPA.
  J. Abah , J.C. Akan , E.I. Uwah and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  The concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate in some tuber crops yam (Dioscorea rotundata), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas), Irish potatoes (Salomum tuberosum), water yam (Dioscoria alata) and cocoa yam (Colocasia esculenta) grown in Benue state, Nigeria were determined using spectrophotometric method according to LaMotte standard procedure. Benue state is know for it agricultural activities and it is the main supplier of food to other state in Nigeria, that is why it is called the food basket of Nigeria. The concentrations of these ions generally range from low to high values The nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate levels of these crops were however well below the tolerance levels of these anions as recommended by WHO. Accordingly, consumption of these crops as food by both human and animals may not pose any immediate health threat with respect to these anions.
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