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Articles by J.B.B. Rayappan
Total Records ( 21 ) for J.B.B. Rayappan
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , G.U. Priyanga , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and R. Amirtharajan
  The intellectual growth of computer communication lead to drastic improvement in wireless technology and shrunken the world into palms of the user which paved the path for the security attack issues. The development of the security system became the ultimate. Popular technique widely used in present scenario that provides a better security to secret information is image encryption. Multiple encryption technique has been adopted in this study. The secret image is block shuffled and then chaotic maps such as baker map, skew tent map and Arnold cat map are used to encrypt the image. Further the image is encrypted using Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) to contribute the final encrypted image. Metrics such as horizontal, vertical, diagonal correlation, Number of Changing Pixel Rate (NPCR) and entropy were calculated for various Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) test images and the performance of the algorithm was analyzed.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The kinetics of higher data requirements in the upcoming wireless generation is engendered by the fact that the usage of high quality multimedia applications in the form of data, audio, SMS and video is on the rise. In order to meet the challenging needs of the increasing data rate requirements, the wireless system employs Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Security is the need of the hour in today’s wireless technological advancement. In this study, OFDM with Reed Solomon codes (RS) as Forward Error correction codes (FEC) has been proposed to achieve lower Bit Error Rate (BER) and data embedding has been carried out to ensure security in wireless communication. Further RS codes are used to restore the cover object.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Stupendous advances in Digital Communication have brought about the advent of internet culture benefiting the people in many ways. Just as fire is a good servant, but a bad master, so is the case with internet. With internet, stealing and unauthorised usage of data remains unrestrained. In addition, use of high multimedia applications demands for higher data rates. To accommodate the challenging needs of higher data rate requirements, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) proves to be the propitious solution. Hacking over wireless environment can be staved off by incorporating the emerging information hiding techniques with OFDM system. This study analyses the performance of OFDM system using modulation schemes like Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and then the confidential information is embedded after interleaving and passed over AWGN channel. Interleaving serves two purposes primarily it reduces burst errors and it needs two different keys intact, one to stipulate the scrambling of the data bits and the other to identify the secret data embedding. It is observed from the simulation results that the BER of the system can be improved by rearranging the input data streams through interleaving, thereby reducing the random errors due to noisy wireless channel environment. The BER graph is simulated for various modulation schemes prior to embedding and after embedding the confidential information.
  C. Lakshmi , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  In this study, implied an overture for acquainting Tamil Character which is handwritten. This refers the procedure of converting written Tamil font to printed one since it is a tedious to course the above mentioned owing to its deviated writing manner, dimension, angle of direction etc. Here, scanned images get pre-processed and subdivided into, first, paragraphs, then (paragraph) to lines, then (line) to words and finally (word) to separate glyph. This study coalesces structural plus categorization analysis and is determined to be extra proficient in support of outsized and composite sets. Recognition Efficiency is enhanced and this proposal generates finest outcomes apart from doing better than existing methods. Also this routine can be further extended to other Indian languages as well.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , K. Pravallika , R. Radha , Har Narayan Upadhyay , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The inventions and innovations in the multimedia communication have revolutionized the infotainment world. With the advancements in multimedia , there is a growing demand to use the image, audio, video and text ingredients for information protection. In the field of steganography, the cover to carry over the secret information has been an image in many of the reported works due to high payload carrying capacity. However audio steganography on hardware platform provides the user an option to use multicarrier steganography on common chip. Here we propose a method of steganography which has been implemented on Cyclone II FPGA EP2C20F484C7 which houses an architecture with LSB substitution of Huffman encoded secret message on select parts of digitized audio signal. The experimental results show that a SNR of 127.7 dB has been obtained for 100 bits payload with embedding process done on every 2000th memory location of 16-bit digitized audio signal stored in External SRAM.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , Pakalapati J.S. Prabhakar , Mucherla Sudheer Kumar , N.V.M. Nikhil , Har Narayan Upadhyay , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Information hiding as a field is extremely fast developing and one of the very few fields that derive its power from its inherent need for sophistication and complexity in its algorithms. Out of the ever growing list of information hiding methods, steganography has emerged as the front runner because of clandestine nature. Image steganography is the heart of steganography because of wide availability of images in local media, variable capacity and its ability to cloak the very existence of secret data in it. There are innumerable software methods available for steganography but there is a dearth of hardware implementations to serve this purpose. In this study, we have devised a FPGA implementation that randomises the volume of data embedded in each pixel, according to the same MSBs. This implementation also contains a novel method to check the integrity of the embedded data by providing a mechanism by which we can weed out any modifications in the secret data, to an extent that it can even pinpoint the exact pixel in which the change has occurred. This algorithm has been implemented on EP2C35F672C6 FPGA. The synthesis report and Timing analysis have also been discussed in this study.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The prospects of the next generation wireless broadband applications will be enhanced by the features like improved Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and variable higher data rates. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system offers better tolerance against multipath effects faced by fading channels. Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes meliorate the system performance. In this study, firstly the data is encoded using Convolution encoders with Puncture codes in OFDM system. Then, the secret message is embedded and passed through Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. The BER graph prior and after embedding the confidential data are compared and simulated using BPSK modulation scheme. The system is made more reliable by reducing the redundancy, errors in the signals and making it more secure and robust in fading environment.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , Har Narayan Upadhyay , Swetha Varadarajan , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The growing demand to protect the confidential messages and documents paved way for the invent of information security techniques. Whatever, be the strength of security algorithms and standards, an equal amount or greater than that attempt is made to crack the information which employs an algorithm to make it invisible to anonymous. New techniques and algorithms will help a lot for strengthening the security of our information systems. Steganography is basically a science turned art to hide the payload with the help of a carrier. We propose a spatial domain image steganography technique which uses two aspects for information hiding-one being the pixel nibble difference and the other in the form of block rotation decided by a variable P’. This technique adds a technique to the group of information hiding techniques where block rotation can be decided by various parameters concerned with the carrier which may be audio, video or text.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , G.S. Hemalatha , Bharathsimha Reddy , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The prerequisite of internet and multimedia communication in the present wireless age is impregnability and higher data rata. In this study, a pragmatic approach was accomplished by the Simulink model of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) using image steganography incorporating BPSK and QPSK modulation schemes. To contemplate the distortion in the image, the discerning distortion metrics called as Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) were computed. The BER of OFDM system was also analysed.
  Rengarajan Amirtharajan , M. Sai Krishna Karthik , L. Radhika and J.B.B. Rayappan
  Facebook is a networking site, which connects people all over the world, making the Earth a global village. This social networking giant was launched by Mark Zuckerberg and his friends. The website mainly aims at connecting people or helps them socialise and makes its revenue out of advertising. This paper mainly tries to tell what facebook is all about and concentrates on how it can be used for educational purposes. It also highlights few of the security problems faced by the users of facebook. This paper mainly tells about the student- teacher interaction, students’ council on facebook and how it will be useful to their education above and beyond portraying results of a FB opinion poll which can divulge and justify the creation of this study.
  Siva Janakiraman , Jagannathan Chakravarthy , Badrinath Radhakrishnan , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Communication playing the key role of daily lives has created revolutions since the Stone Age. In this fast-paced technological world, the utilization of information has gained towering momentum. Furthermore, information while transmitted over the internet with the swift escalation in the mass media and digital communication technology, the requirement for impregnable covert channel arises especially when critical information has to be communed. Over the years, Information hiding techniques have evolved to conceal any critical data in cover files like images, audios and videos and thus, certifying the genuineness and secrecy of the transmitted data. Steganography is one such method where the very existence of the data in the cover image is hidden and thereby, provides for security by making the hidden data unconceivable. The cover file may include audio, video or image files. In this study, two methods have been proposed to embed image within an image with two and three layers of security, respectively. A decoder circuit is used in one of the layers to embed the data not only in the LSB bits but also in the other bits of the lower nibble. Moreover, two bits of data are embedded in a pixel by changing only one bit of the pixel. These methods show improved security without compromising on the PSNR and MSE values.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  We live in an era where hacking and unauthorized access attempts to data are so common. There is a need to secure data before it is transmitted. Addition of overhead bits and modulation techniques decrease the capacity and increase the cost. Both the channel capacity and the cost to set up the communication system have to be optimal. So intimidating is a feature called multiple access used for this purpose. Multiple access also improves capacity by simultaneously transmitting large number of messages. There is very less or no interference between the signals since each of them is polarized orthogonally or encoded using different coding sequences or sent as bursts in different time slots. Particularly Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) makes it more difficult for the hacker to access the transmitted data. If the message is thrown to all the users only the intended receiver has the same coding sequence to decode it. So, others can’t access the message. Even if the message is detected, use of steganography makes it all the more difficult for the hacker to decode the message. This increases the security multifold. The aesthetic appeal of CDMA and steganography together has revolutionized the present world communication systems. In this study, the performance of CDMA is analysed by embedding confidential information at three levels namely after interleaving, spreading and modulator. The Bit Error Rate (BER) performance comparison graphs with and without information hiding at three levels are analysed using BPSK, QPSK and QAM schemes.
  Rengarajan Amirtharajan , Imaculate Rosaline , Rengaraja Swamy , Sai Pavan , R. Sridevi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  The use of information over internet and our dependence on the computing machines has drastically increased with the advancements in technology. As a result, the storage and transmission of the ever increasing volumes of data in an effective way has become a high priority issue. The very systems which are boon to us are also being misused by many to cause harm. Thus, security is a major issue as far as the information is concerned. Thus, it becomes the responsibility of the parties involved in secret communication to arrange for the necessary security, preventing the sniffing by rogue entities. Advancement in digital communication technology along with internet makes data transfer easy and vulnerable to interception and modification by sneakers. Cryptography and steganography are ways of encrypting and hiding data. While Cryptography hides the essence of the data under a cover, like an encrypted text or periodic noises in a digital signal, steganography hides the fact of data itself. The information is more secure when both these techniques are used together. That is, even if the hidden information is found out, it will be encrypted. In this paper, it is proposed to explore the cover generation method. It uses information as data on covers like Image-cover, Circuit-cover Graph-cover, Chess-cover and Questionnaire etc and does not produce noise. Thus, noiseless steganography (noistega) is a fruitful option for data transmission in secured manner.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , Yamini Ravishankar , Har Narayan Upadhyay , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Steganography, a protected envelope for information systems is reaching new horizons at software as well as hardware level. Due to the number of benefits that result in using reconfigurable hardware like FPGA for stego system development, some attention is needed in performing the stego memory testing. While Self test methodologies adopted for memories require attention due to the extensive memory requirements, testing the secret carrier stego memory modules occupies the center stage due to its higher importance of data protection. Normally block RAMs inside FPGA can store the cover and stego images. With the hardware pseudorandom pattern generators, the memory testing can be done effectively. In this regard, the present work focuses on the implementation and analysis of various combined multiple LFSR based pseudorandom sequence generation schemes for Stego Memory self testing on Cyclone II EP2C20F484C7 FPGA. Analysis of the different schemes for their suitability to stego memory arena is an important objective of this work and also sequence distribution analysis has been carried out to verify the distribution of pseudorandom sequences for N clock cycles. The synthesis reports for all the four cases undertaken in this work have also been reported.
  J. Mathiyan , D. Sivalingam , J.B. Gopalakrishnan and J.B.B. Rayappan
  Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis technique over cleaned glass substrate with nickel (II)-acetate tetrahydrate and nickel chloride as precursor. The substrate temperature during deposition is varied between 473 and 523 K to study the influence of temperature over the structural and electrical properties of NiO thin films. The structural analysis of NiO thin films were carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique and it is observed that the films are highly crystalline with face centered cubic structure. The surface morphology of NiO thin film samples was analyzed using Field Emission- Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). The sensing behavior of nanostructured NiO thin films towards various concentrations of ethanol was studied and reported.
  S. Nallusamy , J.B. Gopalakrishnan , R.K. Sekar and J.B.B. Rayappan
  The Ag-PANI nanocomposite was prepared using wet chemical synthesis method. The morphological and optical characterization studies were carried out using FE-SEM and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The FTIR band peaks confirmed the presence of the polyaniline in the Ag-PANI nanocomposites. Variation of the optical characteristics of the Ag-PANI nanocomposites was studied while adding the PVA and acetonitrile. The non linear optical behaviour of Ag-PANI nanocomposite material was studied using the Z-scan measurement technique.
  A.K. Govindaraj , J.B.B. Rayappan and B.G. Jeyaprakash
  Fabrication of ZnO thin film on glass substrate was patterned using spray pyrolysis technique by spraying 0.05 M of zinc acetate aqueous solution as a fine mist at 250°C and again, Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) thin film coating on ZnO thin films was coated using spin coating by dissolving PMMA in 20 mL metacresol. The structural, morphological and optical studies were carried out using XRD, FE-SEM and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. These explain the effect of PMMA on the surface.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  Information security is a prime concern especially when it comes to business and corporate sectors where off the record information should be given utmost importance. Very cooperative especially to business enterprise, modern day expertise has contributed a lot towards sharing a surreptitious data. The field of wireless communication has surmounted many hurdles in the past few years and is now finally capable of supporting higher data rates thanks to the development of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). It is the most ideal format for broadband communication to meet its need for higher data rates. This study further augment the usefulness of OFDM communication by making it secure to avert data piracy. This study propose an idea of embedding the secret message at the real part of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) output of OFDM system and performance of the system is examined for various modulations. Thus, this study is a conjunction of wireless and data security which serves the purpose of secret sharing and can be applicable and suitable to entrepreneurial activities.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , R. Sai Janani , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  There are numerous criteria in running an enterprise. Apart from trading goods and services, or may be both to clients, emphasis should be laid on maintaining the business model that comprises of maintenance of intellectual properties and decisive testimonials as well. In this regard, up to date technological proficiencies be of great assist as everything is now digital and online. Though sound different, technology and administrative terms go hand in hand. Of all one domain that catch the attention instantly is secret sharing and secret communication. This study is one such work. Digital multimedia applications, coming into the limelight in the recent years have impacted the bandwidth requirements and caused an ever soaring demand for broadband wireless application. On the other hand, wireless communication that uses fixed modulation fails to satisfy the needs as its efficiency is stultified by the fading channels. This stydy proposes the adaptive modulation scheme in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) system to counteract fading in the transmission power and the transfer function of frequency selective channel. The prime aim is to maximise the total capacity and transmit power without vitiating the quality of service at the receiver. It can be achieved by making the system smart and subsume some intelligence into it. We make the system adapt itself to the channel conditions and choose the well-suited service at that instant. Simulation results have made it clear that adaptive modulation in OFDM system offers the choice of modulation and FEC (Forward Error Control Codes) with variable rates. The essence of adaptation is maintained even while embedding in wireless transmission to serve the security purposes. Bit Error Rate (BER) graph plotted prior to embedding is analyzed and compared with the one plotted for embedded data.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  Wireless communication with its enhanced efficiency, greater flexibility, mobility and reduced cost has encompassed human needs and sophistications to a greater extent. Several techniques adopted in the wireless standards solely contribute to its heightened demand. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one such technique adopted to provide robust and high speed networks by countenancing signal overlap. The data transmission over wireless, in general, is unsecure and open to the hands of the hackers. A method has to be devised to uniquely identify the copyright owner of the data and prevent the misuse of it. However, on the negative side, the hackers are on par with the experts in this field to combat against piracy. This necessitates the introduction of a method to impart security to the data being transmitted. This study embeds secret data bits in punctured convolutional encoder’s output which are then encrypted using Chaotic means to uphold discretion and then traversed through OFDM system. Integrity is made certain by four-level encryption of secret bits and is stored as key in Cyclic Prefix’s (CP) output. Comparison graphs for the performance of Bit Error Rate (BER) are plotted for different modulation schemes with different rates of punctured convolutional codes. These plots are for puncture patterns with convolutional encoder before and after infixing the secret data. Widespread metrics for performance measurement like BER and correlation values are computed. This estimation reveals the security and arbitrariness of data encryption both with and without embedding the secret.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  This study proposes Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), endorsed by encryption and concatenated Error Correction Codes (ECC). OFDM, as the name suggests exploits the carriers’ orthogonality properties and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) caters to the bandwidth requirements for the broadband applications. To reduce the errors due to the channel noise conditions, concatenated codes utilizing Reed Solomon (RS) codes and convolutional codes are used. Its encoded output is encrypted using the chaotic means to espouse discretion before passing through OFDM channel. Error performance of the scheme is analysed using Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. Comparative graphs are plotted for the performance of Bit Error Rate (BER) on different modulation schemes with different inner and outer code rates. For performance measurements, metrics like BER and Correlation values are computed.
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