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Articles by J.A. England
Total Records ( 4 ) for J.A. England
  J.A. England , C. Salas , R.D. Ekmay and C.N. Coon
  Most methods for evaluating shell quality and egg components are destructive and time consuming. Four trials were conducted to investigate the use of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) as a fast and non-destructive method for evaluating shell quality and measuring the components of broiler breeder eggs. In Trial 1, 180 eggs were scanned with a GE Lunar Prodigy DXA. The eggs were also evaluated by traditional methods that required breaking the eggs for shell quality evaluation and egg components (shell, albumen and yolk) weighed. Values obtained from the DXA scans were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to develop prediction equations. Prediction equations were developed for the weight of egg components (egg, yolk, albumen and shell) and parameters of shell quality (shell weight, thickness and calcium content). In Trial 1, the r2 values for the prediction equations using DXA values were 0.9961, 0.9692, 0.9843, 0.6891, 0.8499 and 0.5738 for the total egg weight, shell weight, shell calcium content, shell thickness, albumen weight and yolk weight, respectively (P>F, <0.0001). In Trial 2, 180 eggs were scanned to validate the prediction equations developed in Trial 1. Results from Trial 2 indicate that the prediction equations using DXA values are an effective method for predicting total egg weight, shell weight, shell calcium content, shell thickness, albumen weight and yolk weight (P>F, <0.0001). In Trial 3, 250 hatching eggs were scanned to determine the affect of scanning on hatchability. DXA scanning had no negative effect on hatchability, hatch chick weight or hatch residue breakout. In Trial 4, the specific gravity of 400 hatching eggs was determined by flotation in salt solutions. The eggs were then scanned with the DXA and values obtained from these scans were used to calculate SWUSA and shell:egg weight ratios. The SWUSA and shell:egg weight ratios determined by DXA scan were useful in predicting eggshell quality and correlated closely with actual specific gravity values (r = 0.7849, p<0.0001). A SWUSA of 75.1 and specific gravity of 1.081 corresponded to a shell:egg weight ratio of 0.0895 and 0.0924, respectively. Following the evaluation of egg shell quality by DXA and specific gravity, the 400 eggs were incubated to determine hatchability. Shell:egg weight ratios less than 0.0895 significantly increased the number of early dead (p = 0.02) during the hatchability study. By defining the scan area it is possible to scan and analyze 140 eggs per hour for all egg components and shell quality. DXA offers the primary breeder or researcher a method for selecting individual hens, based on egg component and shell quality profiles, which may improve the performance of the progeny.
  M.J. Schlumbohm , R. Kriseldi , J.A. England and C.N. Coon
  A continual concern in poultry nutrition is the negative effects that mycotoxins have on animal performance when contaminated grain is used as a dietary ingredient. Mycotoxin binders have been available for decades and are used in the feed as an effective approach to decreasing the intestinal absorption of several mycotoxins, especially when present in low dietary concentrations. The research reported herein with broiler breeders was conducted to test the safety of an effective mycotoxin binder, Improved Milbond-TX® (IMTX), when added to the diet in concentrations higher than the 0.25% which is recommended by the manufacturer. Beginning at 21 weeks of age a typical corn-soybean meal diet was supplemented with IMTX at concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0%. These three dietary treatments were fed continuously from 21 to 35 weeks of age to 300 broiler breeder hens. Data were collected on egg production, egg weights, hatchability, fertility and chick weights from 24 to 35 weeks of age. Egg production, expressed as eggs per hen housed, was not significantly different (p>0.05) among the three dietary treatments. Also, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found among the dietary treatments for egg weights, hatchability, fertility and chick weights. Results from this study show that an accidental over-supplementation of a broiler breeder diet resulting in up to 4 times the recommended dietary concentration of IMTX is not expected to result in any negative effect on broiler breeder performance or of the weight of chicks at hatch.
  J.A. England , J.R. Moyle , D.E. Yoho , R.K. Bramwell , R.D. Ekmay , R. Kriseldi and C.N. Coon
  The effect of pullet growth curve on body conformation and subsequent reproductive performance and effect of breeder feed protein level on reproductive performance was determined. The cost effectiveness of the different programs was evaluated. Cobb 700e pullets were reared from day of age in floor pens. Each pen was assigned to one of two growth curves from 16 weeks of age to housing at 21 weeks of age. One growth curve followed a standard (SD) body weight curve and a second followed a lighter (LI) body weight curve. At 23 weeks of age, half of the hens from each of the growth curves were assigned to one of two breeder diets. Half of the hens were fed a low (LO)-protein (14%) breeder diet and half were fed a higher (HI)-protein breeder diet (16%) during the production phase. Pullet growth curve significantly affected body weight through 30 weeks of age. The protein level of the breeder feed significantly affected body weight at 35 and 40 weeks of age. Pullet growth curve affected body conformation, but did not affect age of first egg. Pullet growth curve did not affect egg weight. Protein level of the breeder feed significantly affected egg weight; hens fed the HI-protein diet laid heavier eggs. Egg production was not affected by pullet rearing growth curve (p = 0.0845) or protein level (p = 0.7348) of the breeder feed. Feeding a LO-protein diet resulted in feed cost savings. The feed cost of SD reared hens fed LO-protein diet was $0.03227 per hen less than for those fed HI-protein diets. The feed cost of LI reared hens fed LO-protein diet was $0.3616 per hen less than for those fed HI-protein diet.
  J.V. Caldas , M.A. Sabir , M. Putsakum , J.A. England and C.N. Coon
  Background: Live coccidiosis vaccines given to broilers at hatch generally decrease body weight gain during the early feeding phases but the effect could reverse after the development of immunity. This study intended to determine if diets supplemented with exogenous protease and carbohydrases can improve Body Weight Gain (BWG) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) after coccidia infection. Methodology: Two thousand three hundred and four male chicks were randomly divided into six diets: Negative Control (NC), Positive Control (PC) and 4 multi-enzyme composites (MEC), all enzyme diets had protease but different carbohydrase combinations for 42 days study. The ANOVA test was utilized. Results: Three different MEC decreased the E. coli population in the ileum. Diets with MEC provided an additional apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen (AMEn) from 91-236 kcal kg–1 compared to the NC and improved digestibility of Amino Acids (AA) from 0.86-5.53% for 3 of the MEC. Cystine, threonine and serine digestibility were each increased >2.8% with MEC compared to the NC. Proteins in mucins contain high quantities of these AA, so enzymes may be providing more of these AA. The FCR for NC broilers was worse than PC (p≤0.05). The FCR, tended to be improved with three of the MEC, however one composite did not achieve better FCR. Conclusion: The MEC improved nutrient utilization with tendency to improve FCR. However, more time may be required to achieve compensatory BWG using MEC with a coccidia infection. The present study also opens the door to study the interaction of MEC and microflora population in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.
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