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Articles by J. Croom
Total Records ( 4 ) for J. Croom
  M. Chichlowski , J. Croom , B. W. McBride , G. B. Havenstein and M. D. Koci
  The poultry industry is facing a ban on the use of antibiotic feed additives in many parts of the world. Consequently, there is a growing interest in finding viable alternatives for disease prevention and growth enhancing supplements. The effects of probiotics or direct fed microbials (DFM) on gut health and performance in poultry as well as other species are presented. The interactions between intestinal microbiota, the gut epithelium and the immune system are important in the competitive exclusion process. The mechanisms by which probiotics operate include spatial exclusion, micro-environmental alterations, production of antimicrobial substances and epithelial barrier integrity. The preponderance of research data in this field suggests the likelihood of a small but additive series of beneficial changes from an animal`s exposure to probiotics. Further investigations will be needed to fully characterize the effects and sustained outcomes of probiotic and DFM treatments in poultry.
  A.S. Fairchild , J. Croom , J.L. Grimes and W.M. Hagler, Jr.
  The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine effects of a dietary sodium bentonite, ASTRA-BEN-20® (AB20) [Prince Agri Products, Inc., Quincy, Ill.], on in vitro binding of T2 toxin and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); and 2) to examine the effects of AB20 in broiler chicks fed 6 ppm dietary T2 toxin (T2) or 4 ppm aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to 21 d. Day-old male broiler chicks were randomly placed in batteries and assigned to one of nine dietary treatments (7 replicates of 5 chicks): control (C); 1% AB20; 2% AB20; T2; T2+ 1% AB20; T2+2% AB20; AFB1; AFB1+1% AB20; and AFB1+2% AB20. Individual BW, feed consumption by pen, period and cumulative feed conversions (PFC and CFC, respectively), and BW gains (BWG) were determined weekly. Liver weight (LW), relative liver weight (RLW), and liver lipid (%, PLL) were determined at d21 for AFB1 chicks. Oral lesions were scored on d21 for T2 chicks. One and 2% AB20 reduced BW during wk 1 and 2 compared to controls. AFB1 reduced BW during wk 2 and 3 and increased PLL at d21. Both 1 and 2% AB20 returned BW, BWG, and PLL to control levels. T2 reduced BW and BWG at wk 1, 2, and 3. T2 + 1% AB20 and T2 + 2% AB20 improved BW at wk 1 and 2 and BWG at wk 1 while T2 + 1% AB20 improved BW at wk 3 when compared to T2. T2 + 2% AB20 also decreased oral lesion severity compared to T2 at d21. PFC and CFC were increased by T2 and T2 + 1% AB20. CFC tended to improve when chicks were fed T2 + 2% AB20 (P<0.06). AB20 protected broiler chicks from dietary AFB1 and provided some protection against dietary T2.
  M. Chichlowski , J. Croom , R. Qui , B.W. McBride and M.D. Koci
  Direct fed microbials (DFM) are a putative alternative to the feeding of subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics in poultry production. Previous studies with a DFM, Primalac®, have suggested that DFM may decrease ileal energy expenditures in broilers. These changes might be related to nutrient transport in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The current study examined the effects of supplementing broiler diets with DFM on ileal glucose and proline absorption and their relationships to GI energy expenditures. Twenty-four broiler chickens were fed a standard starter diet (CON) and CON + DFM, (PrimaLac® 0.3% w/w) from hatch to 3 wk of age. On d 21, birds were euthanized, ileal tissue was dissected and glucose and proline uptake were estimated. In adjacent tissue, total O2 (TO2) and oubain (Na/K ATPase-sensitive) O2 consumption were estimated. Primalac® had no effect (P>0.05) on ileal glucose and proline absorption transport rates as well as oubain sensitive and non-oubain sensitive oxygen consumption rates. Total passive transport of proline across the entire ileum was decreased by Primalac®.
  J. Croom , M. Chichlowski , M. Froetschel , B.W. McBride , R. Qui and M.D. Koci
  Direct-Fed Microbials (DFM) are a putative alternative to the feeding of sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics in the production of poultry and other livestock species. This study was designed to examine the effects of a commercial DFM (Primalac®), or salinomycin (SAL), a commonly used antibiotic and coccidiostat supplement, on fermentation patterns and lactate production in the cecum and the lower intestinal tract of broiler chickens. L-lactate and total lactate concentrations in the digesta fluid of the ileum decreased (P<0.01) with the DFM feeding in comparison to CON and SAL treatments while d-lactate concentration increased (P<0.04) in comparison to CON. Total cecal VFA concentration was lower (P<0.003) with DFM feeding and SAL than the CON. In the present study both dietary supplements, DFM and SAL, altered lactic acid and VFA concentrations in the cecum and intestines of experimental animals; however the full spectrum of mechanisms responsible for antibacterial properties and growth promotion associated with those changes remains to be elucidated.
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