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Articles by J. Salinas-Chavira
Total Records ( 5 ) for J. Salinas-Chavira
  M. F. Montano-G mez , J.F. Calderon-Cortes , A. Plascencia-Jorquera , N.G. Torrentera-Olivera , E.G. Alvarez-Almora , T.B. Renteria-Evangelista and J. Salinas-Chavira
  A total of 12 Holstein dairy cows were used to evaluate the effects of treatments on dairy production and milk quality. Treatments were according to the ratio forage concentrate on diet: T1) 70:30; T2) 65:35; T3) 60:30; T4) 55:45. Twenty kilogram of total diet was offered daily, 10 kg at 07:00 and 15:00 h. The period length of the experiment was 51 day, considering the first 21 day for adaptation. Treatment 1 decreased milk yield and increased fat levels according with weekly measurements. Not effects of treatments on protein, lactose, or non-fat solids levels were observed. Considering with the hold experiment, milk yield level was according with the levels observed during each of 4 weeks; decreasing when alfalfa level increased. Fat milk level was according with the tendency observed weekly, increasing when alfalfa level increased. The levels of protein increased when the amount of concentrate increased. The findings of this experiment suggest that 60% of alfalfa mixed with 40% concentrate offered as total diet in Holstein dairy cows could be a good way to increase yield milk and to improve its quality.
  J. Salinas-Chavira , M. Dominguez-Munoz , R. Bernal-Lorenzo , R.F. Garcia-Castillo and C. Arzola-alvarez
  The effects of diets containing Dried Pig Manure (DPM) and Dried Rumen Contents (DRC) on growth performance and carcass characteristics were examined in lambs. Sixteen intact male Pelibuey×Dorper lambs weighing 23.8±1.9 kg were housed in individual pens for a 60-day feeding trial and were assigned randomly into four treatment diets in a 2×2 factorial design, based on the addition of 15% DPM and/or 4% DRC: T1 no addition (control); T2 DPM only; T3 DRC only; and T4 both DPM and DRC. All diets were formulated to contain 14% CP and 2.6 Mcal ME kg 1 DM. At the end of the trial, carcass images were recorded in the last intercostal space (12-13th ribs) using ultrasound to measure the Longissimus dorsi area muscle and subcutaneous fat. Daily dry matter intake was lower (p< 0.05) in animals consuming DPM plus DRC, compared to animals consuming only DPM or DRC, but similar to the control group; DMI was 941, 1077, 1015 and 952 g, for T1 to T4, respectively. Average daily gain (227, 209, 214 and 188 g, respectively) and feed efficiency (5.37, 5.54, 5.44 and 6.02, respectively) were similar (p>0.05) between groups. Moreover, subcutaneous fat (0.31, 0.29, 0.29 and 0.24 cm, respectively) and Longissimus dorsi area (15.37, 15.32, 15.66 and 14.47 cm2, respectively) showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between lambs fed the four diets. In conclusion, feed consumption was depressed in the diet with pig manure plus rumen contents, however, weight gain or carcass characteristics were not influenced by the inclusion of pig manure and/or rumen contents in their diets.
  R.A. Zinn , J. Salinas-Chavira , J. Lenin , M.F. Montano and U. Sanchez
  Three experiments were conducted: in Experiment 1, 96 steers (334 kg) were used in a 126 days finishing trial to compare ground oyster shell and limestone as supplemental Ca sources at dietary Ca levels of 0.70 vs. 1.40%, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. In Experiment 2, 96 heifers (354 kg) were used in a 149 days finishing trial to evaluate oyster shell and limestone as Ca sources at dietary Ca levels of 0.50 vs. 0.9%, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. In Experiment 3, 4 steers (399 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. The calcium content of limestone and oyster shell was 33.3 and 34.3%, respectively. Ca reactivity was 17.9 and 5.87 min, respectively for limestone and oyster shell. In Experiment 1, there were no treatment effects (p>0.20) on DMI, ADG, gain efficiency, dietary NE, dressing percentage, KPH, LM area and marbling score. Increasing dietary Ca level from 0.7-1.4% tended to slightly increase (1.2%, p<0.10) estimated carcass retail yield and there was a tendency (p<0.10) for an interaction between Ca level and source on fat thickness. Fat thickness was similar for oyster shell at the 2 levels of supplementation. However, with the limestone, fat thickness was 29% greater for diets supplemented to contain 0.7% Ca than for diets containing 1.4% Ca. There were no treatment effects (p>0.20) on fecal pH. As expected, increasing dietary Ca level increased (p<0.01) fecal Ca concentration. In Experiment 2, there were no treatment effects (p>0.20) on ADG, DMI, gain efficiency and dietary NE, dressing percentage or LM area. In contrast with Experiment 1, there were no treatment effects on fat thickness and retail yield. However, KPH was greater (8.9%, p<0.1) for oyster shell than for limestone supplemented diets. In Experiment 3, Ca source did not affect (p>0.20) ruminal microbial efficiency. However, ruminal OM digestion was greater (8.3%, p<0.05) for oyster shell than for limestone supplemented diets. The increase in OM digestion was associated with numerical increases (8.6 and 4.6%, respectively) in ruminal NDF and starch digestion. There was an interaction (p<0.01) between Ca source and level on postruminal OM digestion. Increasing dietary Ca level using oyster shell depressed (7.4%) postruminal OM digestion compared to that of the other treatments. Otherwise, there were n effects (p>0.20) of Ca level and source on apparent total tract digestion of OM, NDF, starch and N. There were no treatment effects (p>0.20) on ruminal pH, VFA molar proportions and estimated methane production. As expected, increasing dietary Ca level from 0.5-0.9% increased (p<0.01) Ca flow to the duodenum (32.3%) and fecal excretion (40.4%). Apparent ruminal digestion of Ca was low (1.2%) across treatments, being slightly negative (-10.7%) for the 0.5 levels of dietary Ca and slightly positive (13.2%), for the 0.9% level of dietary Ca (p<0.05). Conversely, apparent post-ruminal Ca absorption was greater (34.6%, p<0.05) for diets supplemented with 0.5 vs. 0.9% Ca. There were no treatment effects (p>0.20) on apparent total tract Ca digestion. We conclude that increasing dietary Ca levels beyond standard requirements for maintenance and tissue growth may not enhance performance of feedlot steers and heifers fed steam-flaked corn-based high concentrate finishing diets. Notwithstanding the greater reactivity of oyster shell vs. limestone, difference between sources in terms of growth performance and ruminal pH and digestive function are small.
  R.F. Garcia-Castillo , Sh.D. Chávez-Hernández , J. Salinas-Chavira , J.E. Garcia-Martinez , J.R. Kawas-Garza and J.M. Fuentes-Rodriguez
  It was evaluated the influence of diets with different ratio of whole:ground sorghum grain on growth performance of feedlot lambs. Seventeen castrated males Rambouillet x Suffolk lambs of 20±5 kg initial weight were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (T) containing different proportions of ground (G) and whole (W) sorghum grain, T1 = 100 G: 0W; T2 = 50G: 50 W and T3 = 0 G: 100 W. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of and every 15 days to estimate daily weight gain. Offered and refused feed was weighed daily to determine feed consumption. Feed efficiency was determined as daily DM consumption divided by daily weight gain. The experimental period lasted 60 days. Daily feed consumption, weight gain or feed efficiency were not affected by treatments (p>0.05), except for feed consumption from 31-60 days period, in which whole sorghum grain treatments (T2, T3) were higher (12%; p<0.05) than the ground sorghum grain treatment (T1). It is concluded that whole sorghum grain may replace part or all the ground sorghum grain in diets, without affecting the productive performance of feedlot lambs.
  J. Segovia , C. Arzola , O. Ruiz , J. Salinas-Chavira , , C. Rodriguez-Muela , J. Jimenez , H. Gonzalez-Garcia and Y. Castillo-Castillo
  Two selenium sources (organic and inorganic) were evaluated using 28 Multiparous (M) and 18 Uniparous (U) ewes, of 54.8±9.4 and 39.7±5.6 kg live weight, respectively. They were randomly assigned to 2 treatments: Basal diet plus Inorganic Selenium (IS) and basal diet plus Organic Selenium, Sel-Plex 50® (OS). A split plot design in time was used; the animal was the main plot and time (lactation days) was considered as the subplot. The main plot had a 2×2 factorial structure, with 2 selenium sources (IS or OS) and 2 maturities of ewes (M or U). The subplot also had 2 levels (from birth to weaning and from lambing to 22 days after weaning). The variables were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Results showed no difference (p>0.05) of the main effects: Selenium source (treatment), maturity and the weight of lambs in time (lactation days), however the treatment × time interaction showed statistical difference (p<0.05) with weights of 56.8 and 57.3 kg in IS and OS, respectively at 22 days post-weaning. The maturity × time interaction was different (p<0.05) with weights of 57.6 kg for M and 56.4 kg for U, respectively at 22 days post-weaning. The lamb weight was similar (p>0.05), although weights at weaning numerically values favored inorganic selenium. In conclusion, organic selenium could improve the weight of ewes after weaning, however lamb weight tended to be higher with inorganic selenium, however this effect may be related to more lambs per ewe in organic selenium group.
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