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Articles by J. L. Grimes
Total Records ( 3 ) for J. L. Grimes
  V. L. Christensen , D. T. Ort , S. Suvarna , W. J. Croom , Jr. and J. L. Grimes
  The hypothesis was proposed that eggshell conductance constants (k) alter embryonic intestinal development and affect growth post hatching. Egg weight (EW), eggshell conductance (G) and length of the incubation period (IP), the three components of the conductance constant were changed to determine their effect on intestinal physiology. Eggs were selected based on EW and G properties. Half of the selected eggs were incubated using a single stage temperature profile to shorten IP in each of two experiments. EW, G and IP interacted in the first experiment to affect intestinal growth and metabolism. In Experiment 2, k reduced intestinal weight in embryos as well as poults. EW and IP affected the size and maturity of intestinal tissue at the time of hatching. Differences in EW, G and IP observed at hatching were shown to affect the growth of poults for the first week following hatching. Thus, k may act to reduce growth in poults by affecting intestinal maturation. It is suggested that large eggs with low permeability may be at risk for weak poults. This may be especially true when they are exposed to shorter IP.
  V. L. Christensen , D. T. Ort and J. L. Grimes
  The hypothesis was proposed that changes in functional qualities of eggs, or the eggshell conductance constant (k), may affect cardiac weight and physiology and predispose poults to a weakened condition. Improved knowledge of this relationship may allow selection of k to optimize hatchling cardiac health. Egg weights (EW), eggshell conductance (G) and lengths of the incubation period (IP) (the three components of k) were manipulated to determine their effect on the heart. Eggs were selected based on EW and G in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, eggs from the same strain were obtained from flocks of different ages so they differed in EW. Half of the eggs were exposed to increased temperature treatments resulting in shorter incubation periods (IP). Interactions of EW and G affected heart weight and metabolism in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, imposing short IP on different EW reduced cardiac weights as well as elevated glycogen to lactate ratios in the heart. Post-hatching growth was also depressed by k due to interactions of EW and IP. Thus, k affects cardiac weight and function and may contribute to weak poults.
  J. L. Grimes , C. M. Williams , J. L. Godwin and J. C. Smith
  Local and national laws regulating poultry litter (PL) land application may require that PL be applied based on crop needs and PL nutrient content such as N and P. In addition, some may require monitoring of soil metals such as Cu and Zn. Even with efforts to decrease fecal nutrient excretion, there is also a need to extend the useful life of current bedding materials and to develop alternative uses of spent PL. Heat treatment of PL may extend bedding life and offer alternative uses of PL. The objective of this study was to determine if heat processed turkey litter (TL) can be reused as bedding for turkeys. Pine shavings (PS) which had been used as bedding to rear Large White male turkeys from hatch to 20 weeks of age was processed at 95 and 220 °C in an enclosed auger system. Four litter treatments (LT) were used: 1) control - new PS (T1), 2) TL processed at 95 °C (T2), 3) a 70:30 (w/w) mixture of TL processed at 95 or 220 °C (T3) and 4) a 95:5 (w/w) mixture of TL processed at 95 or 220 °C (T4). These bedding mixtures were placed in 36 floor pens in a randomized block design to provide 9 replicate pens per LT. Thirty Large White turkey hen poults were placed in each pen on day of hatch. The birds were reared to 14 wk. Mortality and feed consumption were monitored. Period and cumulative feed conversion (FC) ratios were calculated. Regression analysis of SAS, Inc. was used for data analysis. The LS Means procedure was used to separate treatment means (P≤0.05). At 6 wks, T3 hens were heavier than T1 (1.78 kg), T2 (1.80 kg) or T4 (1.81 kg) hens. There were no differences in BW at 10 (5.42 kg) or 14 wk (8.67 kg) among treatments. There were no differences in FC. The LT did not affect bird mortality. Litter treated by the heat process used for this study produces a bedding material suitable for rearing market turkeys.
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