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Articles by J Endo
Total Records ( 4 ) for J Endo
  J Endo , M Sano , T Katayama , T Hishiki , K Shinmura , S Morizane , T Matsuhashi , Y Katsumata , Y Zhang , H Ito , Y Nagahata , S Marchitti , K Nishimaki , A. M Wolf , H Nakanishi , F Hattori , V Vasiliou , T Adachi , I Ohsawa , R Taguchi , Y Hirabayashi , S Ohta , M Suematsu , S Ogawa and K. Fukuda

Rationale: Aldehyde accumulation is regarded as a pathognomonic feature of oxidative stress–associated cardiovascular disease.

Objective: We investigated how the heart compensates for the accelerated accumulation of aldehydes.

Methods and Results: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has a major role in aldehyde detoxification in the mitochondria, a major source of aldehydes. Transgenic (Tg) mice carrying an Aldh2 gene with a single nucleotide polymorphism (Aldh2*2) were developed. This polymorphism has a dominant-negative effect and the Tg mice exhibited impaired ALDH activity against a broad range of aldehydes. Despite a shift toward the oxidative state in mitochondrial matrices, Aldh2*2 Tg hearts displayed normal left ventricular function by echocardiography and, because of metabolic remodeling, an unexpected tolerance to oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial aldehyde stress stimulated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 phosphorylation. Subsequent translational and transcriptional activation of activating transcription factor-4 promoted the expression of enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, ultimately providing precursor amino acids for glutathione biosynthesis. Intracellular glutathione levels were increased 1.37-fold in Aldh2*2 Tg hearts compared with wild-type controls. Heterozygous knockout of Atf4 blunted the increase in intracellular glutathione levels in Aldh2*2 Tg hearts, thereby attenuating the oxidative stress–resistant phenotype. Furthermore, glycolysis and NADPH generation via the pentose phosphate pathway were activated in Aldh2*2 Tg hearts. (NADPH is required for the recycling of oxidized glutathione.)

Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that mitochondrial aldehyde stress in the heart induces metabolic remodeling, leading to activation of the glutathione–redox cycle, which confers resistance against acute oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  H Mori , Y Ohno , F Ito , N Funaguchi , K Yanase , J Endo , M Nakano , B. L Bai La and S. Minatoguchi

We report a case of gefitinib-induced bilateral upper urinary tract bleeding in an 82-year-old woman administered the drug daily for advanced non-small cell adenocarcinoma of the lung (T4N3M0). Hematuria is an uncommon adverse effect of gefitinib, and in most cases, the bleeding site is unknown. On the 44th day of oral gefitinib administration, the patient noted asymptomatic macroscopic bloody urine. Cystoscopy revealed bleeding from the bilateral ureteric orifices without hemorrhagic inflammation of the bladder. One week later, she was admitted complaining of severe abdominal pain, and her condition was found to be complicated by liver damage and renal dysfunction. We stopped gefitinib administration and started hydration and diuresis. Renal function and urine output soon recovered, and at the request of the patient, we restarted gefitinib, administering it every other day, which was sufficient to maintain antitumor activity and stabilize the disease. On the 41st day after restarting gefitinib, hematuria and proteinuria reappeared. We therefore stopped the gefitinib, and the patient was followed with supportive care. The patient's autopsy findings denied organic urologic diseases. Instead, the reproducibility of the hematuria from the upper urinary system strongly suggests an unexpected gefitinib-related adverse effect.

  H Mori , Y Ohno , F Ito , J Endo , K Yanase , N Funaguchi , B. L Bai La and S. Minatoguchi

When treating lung cancer, pneumocystic pneumonia is a life-threatening complication seen during chemotherapy. Polymerase chain reaction is used to detect its cause, Pneumocystis jirovecii, but polymerase chain reaction positives without pneumocystic pneumonia are sometimes seen. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of pneumocystic pneumonia during cancer treatment.


Fifty induced sputum specimens and 4 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens collected from 50 patients with acute respiratory symptoms during anticancer therapy were retrospectively studied after classifying the patients into lung cancer (n = 29) and solid tumor (n = 21) groups. All of the patients in both groups had an interstitial shadow suspected of being pneumocystic pneumonia, and all had polymerase chain reaction tests.


Eleven of the 54 specimens were polymerase chain reaction positive, and 1 patient was clinically diagnosed with pneumocystic pneumonia. The incidence of polymerase chain reaction positivity in the lung cancer group was significantly higher than in the solid tumor group (31 vs. 5%; P = 0.03), and the incidence of subclinical pneumocystic pneumonia (29 vs. 5%; P = 0.059) also tended to be higher in that group. There were no significant biochemical differences between the two groups, irrespective of the polymerase chain reaction results. Among polymerase chain reaction-positive patients in the lung cancer group, the cumulative dose of corticosteroid administration tended to be higher than among the polymerase chain reaction-negative patients (P = 0.09). Following the polymerase chain reaction tests, nearly all polymerase chain reaction-positive patients without pneumocystic pneumonia received antipneumocystic agents, and none developed pneumocystic pneumonia.


Our findings suggest polymerase chain reaction positivity for P. jirovecii will be detected in a fraction of lung cancer patients. Although it is difficult to predict the need for administration of pneumocystic pneumonia treatment to subclinical pneumocystic pneumonia based on polymerase chain reaction and biochemical results, polymerase chain reaction-positive patients should be followed-up with antipneumocystic agents to ensure they are not at an early stage of pneumocystic pneumonia.

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