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Articles by J Boyle
Total Records ( 8 ) for J Boyle
  S Christen Zaech , K Imoto , S. G Khan , K. S Oh , D Tamura , J. J DiGiovanna , J Boyle , N. J Patronas , R Schiffmann , K. H Kraemer and A. S. Paller

Background  Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a decreased ability to repair DNA damaged by UV radiation and the early development of cutaneous and ocular malignant neoplasms. Approximately 20% of patients with XP also develop progressive neurologic degeneration.

Observations  We describe a boy who was found to have XP after a severe burn following minimal sun exposure. His maternal uncle, now age 20 years, had been diagnosed with XP after a similar sunburn in infancy. The uncle has the typical skin pigmentary findings of XP along with severe progressive neurologic involvement. Although the infant's parents were not known to be blood relatives, the infant and his affected uncle proved to be compound heterozygotes for the same 2 frameshift mutations in the XPA DNA repair gene (c.288delT and c.349_353del). After the diagnosis of XP in the infant, genealogic investigation identified a common Dutch ancestor for both of his grandfathers 5 generations back.

Conclusions  Counseling families at risk for a rare inherited disease is not always straightforward. The sociocultural and demographic backgrounds of the families must be considered for evaluation of risk assessment.

  A. U Trendelenburg , A Meyer , D Rohner , J Boyle , S Hatakeyama and D. J. Glass

Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle size, previously shown to inhibit muscle cell differentiation. Myostatin requires both Smad2 and Smad3 downstream of the activin receptor II (ActRII)/activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptor complex. Other transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-like molecules can also block differentiation, including TGF-β1, growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11), activins, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and BMP-7. Myostatin inhibits activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 protein synthesis pathway, which mediates both differentiation in myoblasts and hypertrophy in myotubes. Blockade of the Akt/mTOR pathway, using small interfering RNA to regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (RAPTOR), a component of TOR signaling complex 1 (TORC1), increases myostatin-induced phosphorylation of Smad2, establishing a myostatin signaling-amplification role for blockade of Akt. Blockade of RAPTOR also facilitates myostatin's inhibition of muscle differentiation. Inhibition of TORC2, via rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR), is sufficient to inhibit differentiation on its own. Furthermore, myostatin decreases the diameter of postdifferentiated myotubes. However, rather than causing upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), previously shown to mediate skeletal muscle atrophy, myostatin decreases expression of these atrophy markers in differentiated myotubes, as well as other genes normally upregulated during differentiation. These findings demonstrate that myostatin signaling acts by blocking genes induced during differentiation, even in a myotube, as opposed to activating the distinct "atrophy program." In vivo, inhibition of myostatin increases muscle creatine kinase activity, coincident with an increase in muscle size, demonstrating that this in vitro differentiation measure is also upregulated in vivo.

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