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Articles by Indira Balachandran
Total Records ( 7 ) for Indira Balachandran
  A.V. Raghu , Gerald Martin , V. Priya , S.P. Geetha and Indira Balachandran
  The study of cost reduction alternatives in micropropagation of Centella asiatica was reported. Low cost options adopted in the study were effective in lowering cost of production without compromising the quality of plants. The cost on media ingredients was reduced by using household sugar instead of laboratory grade sucrose and tap water instead of double distilled water. Use of liquid media during multiplication stage also helped in reducing the cost on agar. Rooting of in vitro developed shoots under ex vitro conditions also helped cost effectiveness.
  K.V. Tushar , Satheesh George , A.B. Remashree and Indira Balachandran
  Coscinium fenestratum (Fam. Menispermaceae), a critically endangered and highly-traded medicinal plant, has become very important in recent years due to its rarity and huge demand in the medicinal plant sector. This review throws light into the various research aspects undertaken in the past and present in the area of botany, pharmacology, chemistry, agrotechnology, harvesting practices and biotechnology along with its medicinal, ethnobotanical and other uses.
  S. Sudhakar Raja , K.P. Unnikrishnan , Satheesh George , A.B. Remashree , P.S. Udayan , K.V. Tushar and Indira Balachandran
  As part of the gene bank activity of CMPR many collections of Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. were made from varying agroecological regions in South India. These collections could be grouped into four morphotypes based on growth habits and other morphological characters. These four morphotypes were evaluated for their chemical and pharmacognostical characters and significant differences among the morphotypes were noticed. Among quality characters vasicine content, fingerprint profiles, stomatal index, leaf architecture and venation pattern showed significant variation indicating the predominance of additive gene effects. A reverse phase HPLC method for the quantitative determination of vasicine in the morphotypes was developed based on which variation in the vasicine content was observed. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed variation in the chemical composition of these morphotypes. These studies indicated variability in the chemical composition and pharmacognostic characters among the morphotypes of A. zeylanica. Two of the morphotypes containing significantly higher vasicine indicated the presence of chemical diversity, providing adequate scope for selection of superior chemotypes having high therapeutic value and economic benefit.
  Satheesh George , S.P. Geetha and Indira Balachandran
  A protocol has been standardized for mass in vitro propagation of Baliospermum montanum. Among the cytokinins, BA was superior to kinetin in terms of the number of shoots produced per explant. All the media containing cytokinins and auxins in combination showed superior results than the media with cytokinins alone. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg L1 BA in combination with 0.1 mg L1 NAA was superior for shoot multiplication. In this medium an optimum number of 9.25 shoots per explant was produced after six weeks of incubation. Among the auxins tried for root induction, NAA and IAA were the most and least effective in root induction, respectively. MS medium containing 0.2 mg L1 NAA was superior for root induction with an average number of 6 roots per shoot. Rooted plantlets on transfer to moist sand, got established successfully in one week and were planted out to pots containing sand, soil and cow dung in 1:1:1 ratio. The micropropagated plants were successfully established with 90 percent success.
  Satheesh George , K.V. Tushar , K.P. Unnikrishnan , K.M. Hashim and Indira Balachandran
  Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (Periplocaceae) is being used widely in Ayurvedic medicine. The history of its medicinal importance dates back to ancient times. The present review deals with studies undertaken in various aspects of this plant in the areas of morphology, anatomy, pharmacology, chemistry and ethnobotany along with medicinal uses.
  K.P. Unnikrishnan , Anu Fathima , K.M. Hashim and Indira Balachandran
  The present research reports the results of the phytochemical studies carried out to identify the diagnostic features of the E. alba. A high performance thin layer chromatographic method was standardized to determine the wedelolactone content in whole plant of E. alba. Methanolic extracts of samples from three different sources were used for analysis. The mean assay of wedelolactone was of range 0.481-0.702 mg gG1 of drug powder. Radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract was evaluated by DPPH assay method, superoxide radical scavenging activity in riboflavin/light/NBT system and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity in sodium nitroprusside/Griess reagent system. The assay results indicate that the DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity were intense (19.25, 39.25 and 58.26 μg mL1, respectively). The phytochemical features identified in the present study can be used as identification markers of this important analgesic agent.
  A.V. Raghu , S.P. Geetha , Gerald Martin , Indira Balachandran , P.N. Ravindran and K.V. Mohanan
  An efficient and rapid in vitro clonal propagation of the endangered medicinal tree Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) by enhanced axillary shoot proliferation from mature single node was designed. The explants showed marked seasonal variation in their response under in vitro conditions. Explants collected in October (72.8%) and November (78.6%) showed maximum response. Multiple shoots were formed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA). An average of 6.2 shoots/explant could be obtained after 45 days of culture. The number of shoots was increased at the third subculture with an average of 16.3 shoots per explant. The effect of subsequent subcultures (upto 20 cycles) on shoot formation was also studied. Subculturing was carried out every 45 days on fresh shoot multiplication medium. Continuous culture in the same medium resulted in distorted and vitrified shoots. Transfer of cultures to half strength MS medium devoid of ammonium ions and cytokinin (BA) for a single cycle before going to the shoot multiplication medium could solve this problem. In vitro rooting was inconsistent in medium with different auxins (Indole 3-butyric acid-IBA, Indole 3-acetic acid-IAA and α-naphthalene acetic acid-NAA) at varying concentration and combinations. But in vitro raised shoots could be rooted ex vitro by pulse treatment with naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA) and IBA and then in chlorogenic acid followed by planting in moist sand. This treatment resulted in 83.9% survival of plantlets. The method standardised could be used for large scale planting material production and conservation of this important endangered medicinal tree.
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