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Articles by I.K.G. Wiryawan
Total Records ( 2 ) for I.K.G. Wiryawan
  R. Priyanto , A.M. Fuah , S. Suharti , I.K.G. Wiryawan , M. Ismail and D. Firmansyah
  Background and Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of Ongole Crossbreed (PO) cattle fed soybean by-products as a substitution for roughage. Methodology: Twenty PO cattle at 1.5 years of age were used in this study and were given 4 feeding treatments (T1:70% concentrate without tofu waste and 30% grass, T2:70% concentrate containing tofu waste, 15% grass and 15% soybean pods, T3:70% concentrate containing tofu waste and 30% soybean pods and T4:70% concentrate containing tofu waste and 3-0% fermented soybean pods). Each treatment was applied to 5 animals as a replication. The average crude protein content and Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) of each feed combination were 14 and 70%, respectively. The parameters measured were as follows: (1) Average daily gain, (2) Dry matter intake, (3) Feed efficiency and (4) Rumen characteristics (i.e., rumen microbes, nitrogen retention, protozoa, allantoin and microbial protein synthesis). Results: The results indicate that cattle given 70% concentrate containing tofu waste with 30% fermented soybean pods (T4) performed well in terms of final body weight, average daily gain, dry matter intake and feed efficiency compared to the other treatments. At the end of the experiment, cattle that received T4 had a higher (p<0.05) final body weight compared to those that received the other treatments. Additionally, cattle fed 70% concentrate containing tofu waste with 30% fermented soybean pods showed a steady increase in average daily gain and showed better performance relative to those that received the other treatments. Cattle fed 70% concentrate containing tofu waste, 15% grass and 15% soybean pods and 70% concentrate containing tofu waste with 30% fermented soybean pods had higher dry matter intake compared to those that received the other treatments. The average feed efficiency of cattle fed T1 during phase 1 was higher than T2, T3 and T4, which was closely related to the average daily gain and dry matter intake. Along with the increased live weight, there was a significant change in average daily gain, which increased significantly in phase 2 and decreased in phase 3. Significant compensatory growth was observed during phase 2, cattle showed optimum growth, which was indicated by a significant increase in the average daily gain at 0.52-1.55, 0.85-1.31 and 1.09-1.41 kg day–1 in cattle fed T2, T3 and T4, respectively. During phase 3, the average daily gain of cattle of all feeding treatments decreased by 0.51 kg day–1 (T1), 0.93 kg day–1 (T2), 0.50 kg day–1 (T3) and 0.75 kg day–1 (T4). Based on the waste production analysis, the carrying capacity of soybean waste for cattle production was approximately 8 AU ha–1. Conclusion: Overall, this study suggested that the combination of 70% concentrate containing tofu waste with 30% fermented soybean pods resulted in a better performance of Ongole Crossbreed (PO) cattle, especially in final body weight, average daily gain and feed efficiency. Rumen characteristics of cattle fed all feeding treatments showed similar results, meaning that the conditions of the rumen were not significantly influenced by feeding treatment.
  A. Bain , I.K.G. Wiryawan , D.A. Astuti , C. Arman and S. Suharti
  Objective: An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soybean oil calcium soap (SOCS) and cashew fruit flour (CFF) supplementation on fermentability characteristics, microbial population and nutrient digestibility using rumen fluid of Bali cattle. Materials and Methods: The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized block design with 4 different ration treatments and 3 replicates. The ration treatments were R1: 40% native grass+60% concentrate, R2: 40% NG+60% C, containing 5% soybean oil and calcium soap, R3: 40% NG+60% concentration (C), containing 5% SOCS+10% CFF and R4: 40% NG+60% C, containing 5% SOCS+20% CFF. The measured variables were pH, NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids and total gas production (fermentability characteristics), total bacteria and protozoa (microbial populations), dry matter and organic matter digestibility. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and differences between treatments were examined using the Duncan’s multiple range test. Results: The results showed that the treatments significantly decreased (p<0.05) ammonia (NH3-N) concentration and total volatile fatty acids production. The different feed treatments did not have any significant effect on pH, total bacteria, protozoa population, dry matter and organic matter digestibility. Conclusion: Supplementation of 5% SOCS in R2 and 5% SOCS+10% CFF in R3 treatments has better NH3-N concentration, total VFA and total gas production compared to the other treatments.
 
 
 
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