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Articles by I.A.A. Ejima
Total Records ( 8 ) for I.A.A. Ejima
  I.A.A. Ejima , I.M. Okolo , C. Johnson and M.I. Ejima
  A cross sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and intensity of Dacunculus medinensis infection among the households in Idah and Ibaji Local Government Areas (LGAs), Kogi State, Nigeria. The results of parasitological examination of 4,426 and 5,161 subjects in Idah and Ibaji LGAs, respectively for active infection gave 0% prevalent rate in either of the two LGAs. However, the responses to the questionnaires on retrospective study of cases of dracunculiasis in the areas for the past one decade showed low prevalent rates both in Idah and Ibaji LGAs. Only one positive case (0.95) of the disease was recorded in two villages, viz.; Ugwoda and Ichekene in Idah LGA between 1990 and 1998 while four positive cases (3.6%) were recorded in only Odogwu village of Ibaji LGA within the same period (1990-98). The study also showed that the inhabitants were predominantly farmers (63.2, 52.6% Idah and Ibaji LGAs, respectively). Idah community depends mainly on River Niger (42.1%) and River Inachalo (57.9%) for their domestic use whereas Ibaji community depends on Rivers Otta (31.6%), River Ogodomu (42.1%) and River Otto (26.3%) all of which are tributaries to the River Niger. These water bodies were sampled for Cyclops species and it was only one pond in Odogwu village that was positive and two individuals of Thermocylops nigerianus were collected. The low prevalence of dracunculiasis suggests that the disease is gradually and naturally being eradicated from the two LGAs even without any observable planned intervention. However, further researches into the Suburbs and interior villages are recommended in case of recrudescence of this debilitating disease.
  I.A.A. Ejima
  The study was carried out among school children in: Government Day Secondary School and Local Government Education Authority (LGEA) Primary School, Ejule-Ojebe in Ibaji Local Government Area (LGA) and LGEA Primary School, Idah in Idah LGA, Nigeria. It was designed to validate the already established protocol of using Praziquantel (PZQ) as a drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis and other helminths. The cure rate procured by PZQ (66.7%) was significantly higher than that of Niridazole/Ambilhar (N/A) (36.0%) (p<0.05). The validation of the efficacy of praziquantel was established in this study when it was observed in one of the subjects examined whose initial egg-count at week zero was 40 eggs/10 mL urine who failed to turn up for treatment (served as a ‘control’) had egg-excretion increased significantly up to 1,420 eggs/10 mL urine in the 20th week post-treatment when re-examined. Generally, the results showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the percentage cure rate in children placed on PZQ-regimen in the three schools surveyed.
  I.A.A. Ejima and A.B. Odaibo
  A survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among primary and postprimary schools children in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) namely, Ibaji, Idah, Lokoja and Ofu in Kogi State was carried out between January, 2002 and December 2005. About 26 (16 primary and 10 postprimary) schools were randomly selected from the four LGAs. A total of 1,104 urine samples were collected and analysed using parasitological and reagent strip (screening) techniques. Of this figure, 206 (18.7; 95% CI: 0.164-0.210) were infected with the parasite. An overall geometric mean intensity of 118.2 eggs/10 mL urine was recorded. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in males (19.4%) than in females (16.5%, p<0.001) but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in intensity of infection between the two sexes. About 76.7% of infected children excreted >50 eggs/10 mL urine; 58.3% were males and 18.4% were females. Primary school children had the higher prevalence (21.5%) than those in postprimary schools (14.5%, p<0.05). The peak prevalence of infection was 22.7 and 20.8% among the primary and postprimary school children were recorded in 10-14 and >20 year age groups, respectively. Ibaji LGA exhibited the highest overall prevalence of infection (40.1; 95% CI: 0.345-0.457). Hence, children of 10-14 year age group contributed more to the transmission of the disease in the Niger-Benue basin than those of any other age groups.
  I.A.A. Ejima and R.T. Ajogun
  A survey of the immediate environment of students’ hostels of Federal Polytechnic, Idah was carried out between the months of July and August, 2007. A total of one hundred human faecal samples obtained from 10 sites were examined parasitologically for ova of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Of the 10 sites, 80% were positive for helminth parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, tapeworm, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciola species and Enterobius vermicularis. The highest prevalence of infection (22.0%) was exhibited by A lumbricoides with Geometric Mean Intensity (GMI) of infection of 7.75 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) while the least prevalence (3.0%) was recorded for T. trichiura with intensity of 3.02 epg. The prevalence of helminth ova differ significantly (p<0.05) with the trend as A. lumbricoides>Hookworm>Tapewortm>S. stercoralis>E. vermicularis>Fasciola species>S. mansoni>T. trichiura. An overall prevalence of single infection of 26.0% was recorded while mixed infection of 54.0% was recorded. The proportion of mixed infections recorded for A. lumbricoides and hookworm; S. stercoralis and Tapeworm; A .lumbricoides and Fasciola species; Tapeworm and A. lumbricoidesetc. were 5.0, 5.0, 4.0 and 3.0% respectively. A combination of three parasites per subject was also recorded in various proportions. The study showed relatively high prevalence and intensity as well as diversity of helminth parasites among the students and/or staff (community) of Federal Polytechnic, Idah and these have serious implications for control. The control strategies and intervention have been discussed in this study.
  I.A.A. Ejima and B.M. Asogwa
  It has been established that sewage harbours various pathogens and allergens that are harmful to human health. A total of 200 sewage samples were obtained from ten sites of the Federal Polytechnic, Idah and examined for bacterial contamination between the months of August and October 2010. Of this total, 180 (90.0%) were positive for bacilli (Rods) while 20 (10.0%) were positive cocci contamination. The bacilli species of bacteria isolaled include: Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. while Staphylococcus aureus was the only cocci bacterium isolated. The mean total count recorded for the four species of bacteria ranged from 1.2x104 to 9.8x104 mL-1 and this range falls within the high to extremely high total count of coliform bacteria. The distribution of mean total count of pathogenic bacteria in the ten sites surveyed was not significantly different (p>0.05). However, the prevalence (%) or occurrence of the four species of the pathogens in the ten sites differed significantly (p<0.05) with 100% cases of S. aureus recorded in FPI-Nnamdi Azikiwe, Amina, Bello and FPI-Omaidoko Hostel, respectively. The overall prevalence of Salmonella typhi (48.7%) active infection, revealed from clinical records, among students and staff of the polytechnic was not only relatively high but spanned through the three months of the study with prevalence of S. typhi ranging from 27.9-61.1% and closely corroborated with the occurrence of S. typhi, 55 (30.6%) in the sewage examined. The findings have no doubt provided baseline information about high prevalence of bacterial infections among students and staff of the polytechnic, especially with respect to rampant cases of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi. With these data, the stakeholders could put in place the necessary measures against the infections by pathogenic bacteria. Contaminated water and food contribute to high morbidity and mortality rates from diarrhoea disease, typhoid fever and gastrointestinal illness and sometimes can lead to epidemics.
  I.A.A. Ejima , I.U. Drisu , U. Yusuf , E.S. Okenyi and S.I. Ejima
  A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of the four species of plasmodium known to affect humans.The research was carried out between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Both parasitological and immunodiagnostic (Immuno-Chromatographic-Test: ICT-Australia) tests were carried out to bring about definitive diagnosis of the species of plasmodium. The study area is Idah Local Government Area (LGA). This was divided into Idah Metropolis (IM) and Idah Suburbs (IS). The necessary biodata information such as sex, literacy level was collected from each participant through structured questionnaire. A total of 573 male and female Literate (L) and Illiterate (IL) subjects were examined for malaria parasites. Of this total (573), 313 (54.6%) infected subjects was recorded as the overall prevalence of infection. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the rate of male, L and IL infection (X2cal. = 3.251; df = 9). Similarly, cal. infection rate between female L and IL did not differ significantly (p>0.05) (X2cal = 14. 551 DF = 9). However, comparison cal = 14. 551 DF = 9 of the four factors, viz. sexes (male and female), L and IL involved in the rate of parasite infection revealed significant difference (p<0.05) (X2cal. = 56.287; df = 27) with the prevalent rate being higher in female than in their cal. male counterparts. In this study, the overall Geometric Mean Intensity (GMI) recorded was 774.8 per μL of blood. Also, significant difference was observed (p<0.05) in prevalence of malaria infection between IM and IS, being higher in the latter than the former (X2cal = 21.552; df = 3). The GMI recorded for subjects in the Idah cal suburbs was clearly significant (p<0.05) than that of Idah metropolis (X2cal = 45.431; df = 3). Generally, GMI was cal recorded for Idah metropolis and Idah suburbs under heavy infections with the exemption of Polytechnic community where both heavy and moderate intensity of infection was recorded. This finding corroborates the fact that the species, Plasmodium falciparum was encountered throughout the study. The treatment regimens of this study were inconclusive because the 34 subjects who were divided into two groups of 17 each failed to turn up for re-examination after the initial treatment with artesunate and fansidar, respectively.
  I.A.A. Ejima , M. Obayumi , I.K. Olayemi and M.C. Dangana
  A survey was carried out among cattle reared in Minna Metropolis, Niger State for tick infestation for a period of 4 months (June to September 2012). A total number of 218 cattle were examined of which 140 (64.2%) were found infested. Three species of ticks were identified namely: Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decolaratus and Hyalomma marginatum. The overall geometric mean intensity was 1.05. Of these species, A. variegatum recorded the highest percentage abundance in bulls (17.7%) and cows (14.6%) in the month of June and July, respectively. There was however, no significant difference in the relative abundance between bulls and cows (p>0.05). Also there was no significant difference in prevalence of infestation between the two sexes (p>0.05). However, the highest (27.4%) abundance of A. variegatum occurred in Maikunkele ranch. Whereas the species with the least percentage abundance, H. marginatum recorded its lowest (8.1%) and highest abundance (8.9%) in Maikunkele and Tayi ranch, respectively. The scrotal and udder regions of the bulls and cows recorded the largest tick infestation, respectively. The lowest abundance of tick infestation of bulls (0.1%) and cows (0.7%) were recorded in the head and neck of the cattle, respectively. The high prevalence rate and intensity of tick infestation recorded in this research has serious economic implications since ticks inflict serious pathological effects on both cattle and humans.
  I.A.A. Ejima , M.A. Yakub , I.K. Olayemi and S.O. Abolarinwa
  Studies were carried out on 182 pregnant women in Minna metropolis, to determine the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum infection using both Parasitological test and Rapid diagnostic test methods of diagnosis. The prevalence and parasitaemia level among the subjects examined in the three different health centres were compared. The overall prevalence of the disease was 58.2% (106 infected out of 182). Of the total pregnant women examined in General Hospital (hospital A) (n = 81), Unity Clinic (hospital B) (n = 60) and Bay Clinic (hospital C) (n = 41), 53 (65.4%), 31 (51.7) and 22 (53.7%) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. The severity of infection for first trimester was at its peak (100%) while for the other two trimesters, severity was 0%. Prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum infection among pregnant women attending the three health facilities were significantly different (p<0.05). There was also significant difference in prevalence rates of infection in terms of trimesters of pregnancy in all the three health facilities (p<0.05). There was however, no significant difference in the level of parasitaemia (geometric mean intensity, GMI/microlitre of blood) among the pregnant women attending the three health facilities (p>0.05). The baseline information provided in this research will guide pregnant women in taking routine antenatal check-up and intermittent treatment with appropriate chemotherapy seriously.
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