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Articles by I. Ismail
Total Records ( 5 ) for I. Ismail
  Z. Zainal , E. Marouf , I. Ismail and C.K. Fei
  Plant defensins are a group of pathogenesis-related defense mechanism proteins. Transgenic tomato plants expressing the chili defensin gene under the control of a Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter were generated. The 5 kDa peptide, corresponding to the chili defensin protein was detected in the total protein fraction extracted from the transgenic plants. When compared to partially-purified peptide extracts from untransformed tomato plants, those from transgenic plant possessed the ability to reduce the growth of several fungi in vitro. T2 transgenic plants were selected and tested for resistance against Fusarium sp. and Phytophthora infestans. The transgenic lines were more resistant to infection by these pathogens than the control plants.
  F.A.A. Fuad , I. Ismail , N.M. Sidik , C.R.C.M. Zain and R. Abdullah
  The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two transformation vectors: binary and super binary vector in the process of gene transfer and expression in oil palm tissues. Two transformation vectors, namely pFA2 (binary vector, ~24.4 kb) and pFA3 (super binary vector, ~39.4 kb) that contains four essential genes (bktB, phaB, phaC and tdcB) to produce polyhydroxyvalerate have been successfully constructed. The two transformation vectors and pMR505, which used as a control were later transformed into oil palm tissues mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Oil palm immature embryos were cocultivated with A grobacterium. tumefaciens that carry pFA2, pFA3 and pMR505 separately and also contain the higromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and α-glucuronidase (gus) genes. GUS assay was carried out on putatively transformed immature embryos as an indicator of successful gene transfer. From the analysis, high percentage of transient GUS expression ranging from 52.6-85.7, 70.5-96.7 and 80.9-93.8% for pFA2, pFA3 and pMR505, respectively were obtained from putative transformed immature embryos. The successful integration of bktB (1.2 kb), phaB (0.8 kb), phaC (1.0 kb) and tdcB (0.9 kb) genes into the immature embryos genome were confirmed by PCR analysis. Relative quantification through real-time PCR analysis indicates that the expression of PHBV gene in oil palm immature embryos transformed with pMR505 is 7 times higher than non transformed immature embryo, followed by transformed with pFA2 (2 times) and pFA3 (0.7 times), respectively. Thus, this data suggest the efficiency of super binary vector compared to binary vector in transferring foreign genes and enhancing its expression in oil palm tissues.
  N. Huda , I. Ismail and R. Ahmad
  The study was envisaged to determine the effect of washing processes (unwashing and a single washing) and addition of palm oil (0, 3 and 6%) on the proximate compositions and physicochemical properties of the duck sausages. Washing was carried out at meat to water ratio of 1:1 (w/v). Samples with higher oil levels demonstrated significantly higher fat content and at the same evidence showed lower moisture and protein contents. Treated samples were lighter after washing, while their yellowness value increased with fat content. In regards to texture profile analysis, samples with lower levels added oil had higher values for hardness and shear force and the microstructure of the samples became less porous after washing. It can be concluded that, quality characteristics of sausages were affected by washing processes and oil addition.
  I. Ismail , N. Huda and A. Fazilah
  Invention of surimi technology in poultry meat processing can provide a new approach toward increasing its value and utilization. Surimi technology is an effective method to remove fat, connective tissue, pigment, flavor components and soluble protein. Approaches to improve the quality of poultry surimi can be adopted from the process innovations in fish surimi processing. Research has shown that cryoprotectants have a marked effect on the preservation of the functionality of poultry myofibrillar protein. As poultry meat possesses good animal protein quality as well as lower fat and saturated fatty acid contents than those of red meat, there is a higher potential of poultry meat to be a surimi replacer. However, further studies of non-chicken poultry surimi (duck, turkey and quail) are necessary in the future due to the limited information available on the use of these types of meat as surimi replacers.
  I. Ismail , N. Huda and F. Ariffin
  The quality characteristics of duck sausages prepared using different treatment were evaluated. Physicochemical, sensory and microbial properties of sausages containing duck surimi-like material substitution with cryoprotectant added (CPP) and without cryoprotectant added (NPP), antioxidant added (BHA) and, duck mince (as the control, CON) were compared. CPP and NPP sample had significantly higher (p<0.05) moisture content and lower protein and fat content compared with CON sample. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value of all sample increased as the storage time increased up to day 30, but thereafter it decreased in all of the samples. CPP sample had significantly lower TBARS value (p<0.05) and this value remained lower than those of the other samples throughout the refrigerated storage time. Addition of duck surimi-like material to the sausages had significant effects (p<0.05) on hardness, gumminess and chewiness values of CPP and NPP sample. Treatment had no significant effect on sensory attributes of sausages prepared from duck meat. CPP sample had lower microbial activity during 40 days of refrigerated storage. However, BHA sample had no significant difference in microbial activity compared with CON sample. The results indicate that duck surimi-like material substitution with cryoprotectant added improves quality characteristics of duck sausages during refrigerated storage than the other treatments.
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