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Articles by Hui Wang
Total Records ( 23 ) for Hui Wang
  Hong Yang , Hongbin Chen , Minjun Chen and Hui Wang
  Quinolone resistance is an emerging problem in China. To investigate the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnr and aac(6`)-Ib-cr, a total of 265 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥0.25 µg/ml were screened at nine teaching hospitals in China. The qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6`)-Ib genes were detected by PCR. The aac(6`)-Ib-cr gene was further identified by digestion with BtsCI and/or direct sequencing. The qnr gene was present in significantly smaller numbers of isolates with cefotaxime MICs of <2 µg/ml than isolates with higher MICs (≥2.0 µg/ml) (20.6% and 42.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). aac(6`)-Ib-cr was present in 17.0% of the isolates tested, and 7.9% of the isolates carried both the qnr and the aac(6`)-Ib-cr genes. Among the isolates with cefotaxime MICs of ≥2.0 µg/ml, qnr and aac(6`)-Ib-cr were present in 65.7% and 8.6% of E. cloacae isolates, respectively; 65.5% and 21.8% of K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively; 63.3% and 26.7% of C. freundii isolates, respectively; and 6.5% and 16.9% of E. coli isolates, respectively. The 20 transconjugants showed 16- to 128-fold increases in ciprofloxacin MICs, 14 showed 16- to 2,000-fold increases in cefotaxime MICs, and 5 showed 8- to 32-fold increases in cefoxitin MICs relative to those of the recipient due to the cotransmission of blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-3, blaDHA-1, blaSHV-2, and blaSHV-12 with the qnr and aac(6`)-Ib-cr genes. Southern hybridization analysis showed that these genes were located on large plasmids of different sizes (53 to 193 kb). These findings indicate the high prevalence of qnr and aac(6`)-Ib-cr in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and the widespread dissemination of multidrug resistance in China.
  Hui Wang , Chunwen Yang , Minghai Zhang , Weijun Guan and Di Liu
  Cadmium (Cd2+) is a toxic heavy metal element that does severe harm to health. Since Cd2+ is known to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types, this study investigated the apoptotic effects and mechanisms of Cd2+ on Siberian tiger fibroblast cells. This research observed morphological alterations with confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and detected apoptotic rates, cell cycle progression, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. The results demonstrated that typical apoptotic morphological alterations occurred after cadmium treatment. Cadmium exerted a strong inhibitory to the proliferation of Siberian tiger fibroblast cells and induced apoptosis in a dosage and duration dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at G0/G1 phase, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dropped and calcium homeostasis was disturbed. It is concluded that cadmium induced apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblast cells via arresting cell cycle progression, reducing mitochondrial transmembrane potential and disturbing intracellular calcium homeostasis.
  Guo-Feng Fang , Wei Chen , Shou-Dong Wang , Yan-Dong Wang , Chuan-Hao Li , Hong-Lei Zhu , Hui Wang and Yong-Qing Zeng
  Background: Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the most important traits affecting meat quality such as tenderness, juiciness and flavor. Phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 (PID1) gene has been reported as a candidate gene for fat deposition. Therefore, an overexpression of PID1 gene in pigs could be of great benefit to the swine industry and consumers. Materials and Methods: In this study, the PID1-transgenic pigs were produced by sperm mediated gene transfer and magnetic nanoparticles with high efficiency. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Southern blot methods were employed to identify PID1-transgenic pigs. The copy numbers of exogenous gene in transgenic pigs were estimated by Southern blot analysis. Results: Twenty four live piglets were born from the two sows by natural delivery. Eleven piglets were positive in the PCR amplifications (45.83%). These PCR-positive pigs were further identified by Southern-blot analysis, out of which 7 pigs were positive in both Southern blotting and PCR (29.16%), others were positive only in PCR. In addition, the PID1 expression levels in the liver and longissimus dorsi muscle tissue were higher than wild-type ones (p<0.05), whereas the levels in backfat and kidney were similar to wild-type ones in transgenic pigs. Conclusion: The results suggest that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to efficiently introduce a transgene into animals via sperm mediated gene transfer, the PID1-transgenic pig model could further serve to study obesity and the mechanism of IMF deposition.
  Chien- Chung Chao , Zhiwen Zhang , Hui Wang , Abdulnaser Alkhalil and Wei- Mei Ching
  Rickettsia typhi, an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes murine typhus, possesses a heavily methylated outer membrane protein B (OmpB) antigen. This immunodominant antigen is responsible for serological reactions and is capable of eliciting protective immune responses with a guinea pig model. Western blot analysis of partially digested OmpB with patient sera revealed that most of the reactive fragments are larger than 20 kDa. One of these fragments, which is located at the N terminus (amino acids 33 to 273), fragment A (At), has been expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein (rAt) was purified by chromatography and properly refolded by sequential dialysis. The refolded rAt protein was recognized by at least 87% of the typhus group patient sera as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the titers were lower than those obtained with OmpB of R. typhi. Since native OmpB is hypermethylated at lysine residues, we chemically methylated the lysine residues in rAt. The methylation was confirmed by amino acid composition analysis, and the methylation pattern of the methylated rAt (mrAt) protein was similar to that of native At from OmpB, as revealed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Both rAt and mrAt were evaluated in an ELISA for their serological reactivity with patient sera. Among patient sera tested, 83% exhibited higher titers with mrAt than with rAt. These results suggest that rAt, with or without methylation, can potentially replace rickettsia-derived OmpB or whole-cell antigen for the diagnosis of R. typhi infection.
  Yue Zhao , Xiaohua Hu , Xiaodan Lv and Hui Wang
  This study proposed a method of camera self-calibration with the positive tri-prism. The coordinates of circular points can be obtained through the properties of positive tri-prism. According to the theory of projective transformation, the coordinates of the vanishing points of each edges of positive tri-prism can be obtained. After that, combined with the corollary of Laguerre theorem (the infinity points of two mutually perpendicular lines and the circular points harmonic conjugate), one can obtain the image coordinates of the circular points. By computing coordinates of whole the circular points in an image, according to the constraints on the intrinsic parameters which are established through image of the absolute-conic, we can obtain the intrinsic parameters linearly. The method algorithm has been tested on both computer simulated data and real data. The technique only required single target image and the orientation of camera did not need to be known. The results gained considerable robustness.
  Zhi-Jiang Xu , Sheng-Feng Yu , Hui Wang , Li-Min Meng and K.L. Du
  License plate location is a critical part in the license plate detection and recognition system. It is sensitive to weather, illumination and the size of license plate. A variety of license plate location algorithms is proposed, which have limited adaptability. In order to resolve the above mentioned problem, this study improves the image preprocessing, image filtering and discrimination of pseudo-regions in 6 different algorithms based on the corner detection, on wavelet transform, on HSV color space, on RGB color space, on license plate texture and on the integrated features of license plate respectively. The experiments show that the improved algorithms have strong robust.
  Xiaojing Huo , Wendi Wang , Jinguo Zhang , Hui Wang and Shuxia Liu
  In dairy cow breeding industry, the successful real-time remote monitoring of cow body parameters or environmental information leads to know well the nutrition status, healthy condition, oestrus and productive performance of the cattle in time. The objective of this research is to develop a real-time remote data acquisition system with C/S(client/server) structure based on virtual instrument technique. The Internet communication function was realized using LabWindows/CVI 8.5 DataSocket library. With the DataSocket technique the cowshed ambient temperature, the humidity as well as dairy cows’ activity amount, milk yield, body temperature and milk conductivity were measured and remote transmitted. Then test experiments were done by taking the body temperature, milk yield and milk conductivity for measurement parameters. The results showed that the system worked safely with high data transmission speed and friendly user interface in practical operation.
  Hui Wang , Xia Zhang , Pengcheng Dong , Yongjiang Luo and Fusheng Cheng
  Microbial polysaccharides are located both inside the fungal cell walls and on the fungal cell surfaces and possess marked immunological properties. In this study, the extraction conditions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae polysaccharides (SCPS) were optimized using response surface methodology and the immune enhancement properties of SCPS were evaluated. The results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions were high pressure homogenization time of 35 min, ultrasonic power of 510 W and ultrasonic time of 26 min, respectively. Under these conditions, the maximal observed value extraction yield of S. cerevisiae polysaccharides (SCPS) was (29.84±0.09)%, which was agreed with predicted value 29.82%. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) exhibited SCPS may be a glucan. Pharmacological experiments indicated that SCPS could increase alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lysozyme (LZM), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) levels in serum, increase secreted immunoglobulin A (SIgA) expression in jejunum secretion and decrease prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression in colon of immune-compromised rats at medium-dose. Saccharomyces cerevisiae polysaccharides has significant immune enhancement activity and could obviously protect intestine mucosa of immune-compromised rats.
  Li Wang , Wentao Yao , Hui Wang , Ning Xu and Minghui Chen
  Background and Objective: Bronchial asthma has become one of the global public health problems currently. This study aimed to assess the effects of doxofylline combined with budesonide on the pulmonary function of patients with bronchial asthma based on changes in the levels of T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients with bronchial asthma treated were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 60). The control group received budesonide suspension inhalation therapy, while the experimental group was treated with doxofylline tablets in addition to the treatment for the control group. The disappearance time of main symptoms was recorded. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and the levels of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-17 in serum were measured before and after 3 months of treatment. Results: After treatment, the disappearance time of wheezing, cough, short breath and pulmonary wheezing sound in the experimental group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (p<0.05). FVC, FEV1 and PEF in both groups rose and the experimental group had a more significant increase (p<0.05). The level of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 rose, while those of Th2 and Th17 cells declined in both groups, especially in the experimental group (p<0.05). The serum level of IFN-γ increased, while those of IL-4 and IL-17 decreased in both groups, particularly in the experimental group (p<0.05). During treatment, the incidence rate of adverse reactions was 3.33% in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Doxofylline combined with budesonide can effectively relieve the imbalances of inflammatory response and immune mechanism in patients with bronchial asthma, thus ameliorating clinical symptoms and pulmonary function.
  Balazs Felfoldi , Hui Wang , Nikhil Nuthalapati , Robert L. Taylor, Jr. , Jeffrey D. Evans , Scott L. Branton and Gregory T. Pharr

Background and Objective: A previous transcriptomics analysis identified the expression of a pleiotropic cytokine, termed leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) in the bursa of Fabricius of the chick embryo. However, a role for the LECT2 gene product in the bursal microenvironment is unknown at present. The goal for this research project was to validate the expression of the LECT2 gene at the mRNA and protein level in the chick embryo bursa. Materials and Methods: The LECT2 gene transcript levels were determined by quantitative PCR with RNA derived from embryonic B-cells isolated at two different periods of bursal development. Whole protein extracts from the embryonic bursa were evaluated by mass spectrometry. Results: Expression of the LECT2 gene is significantly higher in B-cells from the early stage of bursal development. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed 9 different peptides from the LECT2 protein in the same embryonic period. Conclusion: The LECT2 gene is expressed at both the mRNA and protein level in the early period of bursa development. We postulate that LECT2 may contribute to B-cell migration into microenvironments established by non-lymphoid cells.

  Hui Wang , Xia Zhang , Fu-Sheng Cheng , Yong-Jiang Luo and Peng-Cheng Dong
  The aims of the present study were to investigate the immune enhancement effect and production performance of Yeast Polysaccharide (YPS) on rats. The results showed that each index in YPS groups was higher than that in blank control group. Any dose of YPS by orally administrated significantly raised spleen and thymus index, serum IgA, IgG, AKP and LZM level, phagocytic index and phagocytic activity of macrophages in the rats. Meanwhile it can increase production performance of rats. Results suggested that any dose of YPS can enhance immunologic function and production performance of rats and the dose of 100 mg kg-1 has the most obvious efficacy.
  Guangwei Kuang , Andong Xiao , Qiyou Chen , Xiaojun Chen , Dasheng Zhang , Hui Wang and Zhiliang Sun
  A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain named PB-CS01 which is bioluminescence-positive was isolated from contaminated commercial pork that probably had been exposed to seafood. Optimal growth of strain PB-CS01 requires the presence of 3.0% (w/v) NaCl and a temperature of 20°C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain PB-CS01 and other Photobacterium species showed that the novel isolate belongs to the genus Photobacterium. Sequence similarity analysis between PB-CS01 and other species indicates that the closest relatives of strain PB-CS01 are Photobacterium phosphoreum ATCC 11040 (99.9%), Photobacterium kishitanii pjapo.1.1 (99.8%) and Photobacterium iliopiscarium ATCC 51760 (99.5%). The most abundant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (50.77%; C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) and C16:0 (15%). The fatty acid profile is similar to that of the genus Photobacterium but this report is the first to describe C16:1ω6c as one of the compositions of summed feature 3 of the genus Photobacterium. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB-CS01 was 44.8 mol%. Overall, strain PB-CS01 is a novel Photobacterium species.
  Hui Wang , Xiangchen Li , Changli Li , Wenxiu Zhang , Weijun Guan and Yuehui Ma
  A fibroblast cell line of Qing Kedan chicken was successfully isolated, purified and cryopreseved through direct culturing of explants, serial passage and cryogenic techniques. Assays for biological characteristics were conducted and the results suggested that: the cells cultured with a Population Doubling Time (PDT) of about 20 h, constituted a typical fibroblast cell line in morphology; tests for microbial contamination regarding bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasmas were exclusively negative; Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH) polymorphism analysis disproved the existence of cross-contamination from other cell lines; diploid cells making up 85-93% of the population verified the hereditary stability of the fibroblast line. pEGFP-N3, pEYFP-N1 and pDsRed1-N1 were transfected into the Qing Kedan chicken embryonic fibroblasts with transfection efficiencies between 12.6 and 39.7%. To locate their cellular distribution, transfected cells were observed at 24, 48 and 72 h with confocal microscopy and the fluorescences could be observed throughout the cytoplasm and nuclei of positive cells except in cryptomere vesicles. This research preserved the precious germplasm resource of Qing Kedan chicken at cell level and hence served as an enlightening reference for those of other poultry in the world.
  Yuanzhi Wang , Ke Zhang , Yali Zhang , Hui Wang , Fei Guo , Lin Zhang , Hui Zhang , Lijuan CaoBuyun , Cui , Chengyao Li , Li Yuan , Wanjiang Zhang , Ze Xu and Chuangfu Chen
  An outbreak of brucellosis occurred in students on field practice at sheep farm in 2005 at Shihezi, Xinjiang Province, the North-West of China. Five of 7 (71.4%) students were seropositive, showing titers ≥1:160 IU mL-1 in STAT and diagnosed as acute brucellosis with physical examination. To characterize Brucella isolates from the outbreak, the research including face to face investigation, Brucella isolation, multiple locus VNTR-16 analysis (MLVA-16) and genome sequencing were carried out. The investigation showed 42.5% (1,293/3,042) of ewes are sero-positive with RBPT and almost half of ewes aborted. Although, no bacteria were isolated from student blood samples, five individual colonies were isolated from aborted sheep fetuses and were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 by conventional microbiological tests. MLVA-16 typing indicated that the isolates were clustered in the East Mediterranean with genotype 42. They were similar to wild strains from Guangdong in 2008 and Inner Mongolia in 1994 and 1995. They were most close to strain bru0261 from Pakistan student studying in Germany. Genome sequence and phylogenomic tree showed that pathogen in this study was close to Chinese wild and vaccine strains such as B. melitensis M28, M5-90. Researchers first report pathogens isolated in 1980 and 2005 are genotype 42 containing novel MLVA-16 patterns (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2-4-20-8-8-4-3-7-7) compared to that both in China and other countries.
  Hui Wang , Xiaohong He , Taofeng Lu , Yuhua Zhao , Zhiqiang Zhu , Weijun Guan and Yuehui Ma
  A fibroblast bank of Altay sheep consisting of 182 tubes of frozen cells was successfully abtained from primary explants of 57 individual animals through attachment cultivation and cryopreservation biotechniques and each vial contains 1.3x107 cells, respectively. The results of quality assays and biological characteristic researches showed that the cells cultured with a Population Doubling Time (PDT) of about 24 h, constituted a typical fibroblast in morphology; assays for microbial contamination regarding bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasmas are all negative; analysis of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzymes ruled out the possibilities of cross-contamination between species; the ratio of diploid cells is 98.6%. In order to study the expressibility of exogenous genes, six kinds of fluorescent protein-coding plasmids were transfected into the Altay sheep fibroblast with transfection efficiencies between 22.3 and 46.7%. This research could not only preserve the genetic resources of Altay sheep but also provide both technical and theoretical basis for preserving those of other mammals and poultry at cell level.
  Biao Zhou , Kun Chen , Junfang Wang , Hui Wang , Shuangshuang Zhang and Weijun Zheng
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) in the older rural and urban Chinese populations in Zhejiang province. An analysis of the association between potential factors and QoL for these two groups was conducted. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2007. The total sample consisted of 2,441 rural and 2,554 urban participants. A Chinese version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to quantify the QoL of participants. A comparison between the QoL of rural and urban participants was made. The association between potential factors and QoL was performed using a multiple linear regression model. The study revealed all scale scores of SF-36 in the rural population were significantly lower than those in the urban population except general health (GH; p < .001). The common factors associated with high QoL in both older rural and urban populations were gender (male), tea consumption, income, and consumption of alcohol. Age and the number of chronic diseases an individual suffered from were negatively associated with QoL. In addition, the study revealed the perception that giving up smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol were negatively associated with QoL for participants living in rural areas, whereas educational level and regular exercise were positively associated with QoL for participants living in urban areas. Intervention programs for decreasing chronic diseases, establishing security mechanisms of the pension, and spreading the knowledge of healthy lifestyles may improve QoL for the older populations in Zhejiang province, especially in rural areas.
  Hui Wang , Hongyu Chen and Shanshan Yang
  With increasing Internet connectivity and traffic volume, recent intrusion incidents have reemphasized the importance of network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). According to the deficiency of the Naive Bayesian (NB) algorithm, this paper presents an improved NB algorithm, which is addition of an attribute-added method to the traditional NB. This algorithm which is based on the original model and combined with a controlling parameter to enhance the accuracy of classification, the best parameter obtained by experiments can not only simplify both the time complexity and space complexity of the intrusion detection but also optimize the classification performance. The experimental results prove that this proposed approach applied into the intrusion detection framework can drastically reduce the false alarm rate of IDS so as to improve the detection efficiency and decrease economic damage brought by the cyber attack.
  Hongmai Wu , Jing Sun , Hui Wang , Chumeng Lv , Rong Li , Xin Shi and Jian Ding
  This study mainly focus on: with the modern manufacturing industry stepping into the era of post-industrialization, Chinese modern manufacturing enterprises have to promote technical innovation, adjust industrial structures, perfect Logistics Resources System (LRS), strengthen quality education, enhance Supply Chain Management (SCM) level, fulfill energy saving and waste lowering, uphold stable, sustained and coordinated and scientific development. Facing to the global and economic recovery, this is a very important problem how to solve before us. Utilization of the production line balancing based on LRS integration, the Chinese modern manufacturing industry and logistics industry would put their heads together and find ways to tide over the difficulty and win an advantage over the international competition.
  Hui Wang , Hongmai Wu , Jing Sun and Guang Cheng
  This article is based on the method of equipment management business process reengineering as the research object and aiming at how to model and optimize equipment management business process. Business process reengineering of equipment management is Using quantitative analysis method, through the design structure matrix theory and calculation method of fuzzy mathematics and building the structure matrix business process model, clustering, combined with the theory of business process reengineering and method. It is verified through the spare parts from the business process and equipment and strengthened the connection between each business links, so as to reducing the waiting time which lays the theoretical foundation for the integration of management and information technology equipment management in informationization construction.
  Xiaoyong Zhou , Fanrong Kong , Tania C. Sorrell , Hui Wang , Yiqun Duan and Sharon C. A. Chen
  A sensitive rolling-circle amplification (RCA)-based method utilizing species-specific padlock probes targeted to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of the fungal ribosomal DNA gene complex was developed. The assay was rapid (2 hours) and specific. Of 28 fungal isolates (16 of Candida, six of Aspergillus, and six of Scedosporium spp.), all were all identified correctly.
  Fanrong Kong , Lotte Munch Lambertsen , Hans-Christian Slotved , Danny Ko , Hui Wang and Gwendolyn L. Gilbert
  Among 1,762 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), 207 (12%) initially nonserotypeable isolates were tested by improved conventional serotyping methods (Lancefield antigen extraction with 0.1 and 0.2 N HCl, latex agglutination assays, and use of antisera against all known serotypes [Ia, Ib, and II to IX]) and a molecular serotype identification system (multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot [mPCR/RLB] assays targeting serotype-specific sites in the region spanning cpsH to cpsM). Serotypes were assigned to 71 (34%) of the 207 isolates by using antisera and to 204 (98.5%) of them by mPCR/RLB. Sequencing of a portion of the cpsE-cpsF-cpsG region of 141 persistently nonserotypeable isolates and 1 with discrepant conventional and molecular serotyping results was attempted. Major mutations were identified in 34 isolates (24%), including 11 (8%) from which no amplicons were obtained and 23 (16%) with sequence variation compared with published sequences; of the latter, 21 (15%) were associated with amino acid changes. By contrast, mutations were identified in only 12 (2.3%) of 516 serotypeable isolates for which this region has been sequenced previously. In summary, an improved serotyping scheme allowed serotype identification of more than one-third of the previously nonserotypeable GBS isolates. Molecular serotypes were assigned to almost all of the isolates by mPCR/RLB. Significant mutations (with no amplicons or with associated amino acid changes) were found in the cpsE-cpsF-cspG region of a higher proportion of nonserotypeable than of serotypeable isolates (32/141 versus 8/516; P < 0.001), but further investigation is needed to determine the genetic basis for most nonserotypeable GBS isolates.
  Yingdi Lv , Hui Wang , Xiaofang Wang and Jinbo Bai
  Monodisperse Fe3O4 microspheres assembled by a number of nanosize tetrahedron subunits have been selectively synthesized through the hydrothermal process. The synthesized Fe3O4 microspheres have good dispersibility. The subunits made up of microspheres were uniform in size and like-tetrahedron in shape. The average diameter of each Fe3O4 microsphere is about 50–55 μm. The length of each edge of tetrahedron is about 100 nm. A series of experiments had been carried out to investigate the effect of reductant, precipitator and reaction time on the formation of Fe3O4 microsphere and tetrahedron subunits. The results show that ascorbic acid as reductant and urea as precipitator supplied a relatively steady environment during the synthesis process and led to the formations of Fe3O4 tetrahedron subunit and monodisperse Fe3O4 microspheres. As the reaction time increased from 3 to 24 h, the Fe3O4 microspheres tended towards dispersion and becoming large in size from 10–20 to 50–55 μm, and the subunits formed Fe3O4 microspheres that varied from spheroid to tetrahedron and from a small nanoparticle (20–30 nm) to a large one (90–110 nm). A reasonable explanation for the formations of the Fe3O4 microsphere and the tetrahedron subunit was proposed through Ostwald ripening and the attachment growth mechanism, respectively.
  Hui Wang , Yi Lu , Xiuqing Zhang , Yuhong Hu , Haining Yu , Jingze Liu and Junshe Sun
  Broad-folded frogs (Hylarana latouchii), one member of 12 species of the genus Hylarana in the Chinese frog fauna, are widely distributed in the South of China. In this study, we purified and characterized three antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretion of H. latouchii. Five different cDNA fragments encoding the precursors of these antimicrobial peptides were cloned, and five mature antimicrobial peptides belonging to two different families were deduced from the five cDNAs. Structural characterization of the mature peptides had identified them as members of the brevinin-1 and temporin families. They were named brevinin-1LTa (FFGTALKIAANVLPTAICKILKKC), brevinin-1LTb (FFGTALKIAANILPTAICKILKKC), temporin-LTa (FFPLVLGALGSILPKIF-NH2), temporin-LTb (FIITGLVRGLTKLF-NH2) and temorin-LTc (SLSRFLSFLKIVYPPAF-NH2). Brevinin-1LTa, temporin-LTa, temporin-LTb and temporin-LTc with different antimicrobial activities induced significant morphological alterations of the tested microbial surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy, which indicated strong membrane disruption.
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