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Articles by H.S. Banyal
Total Records ( 11 ) for H.S. Banyal
  G. Kapoor and H.S. Banyal
  Present study was undertaken to purify and characterize thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) of Plasmodium berghei, a rodent malaria parasite. Plasmodium contains thioredoxin redox system that acts as efficient antioxidant system preventing damage caused by enhanced oxidative stress. Thioredoxin (Trx) functions as redox messenger in the parasite maintaining a reduced intracellular environment. Thioredoxin reductase (E.C. was analysed in rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Cell-free parasite showed TrxR specific activity of 0.128±0.10 U mg-1. Maximum TrxR activity was observed in cytosolic fraction of P. berghei. The parasite enzyme was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-200. Its molecular weight was 22 kDa and the enzyme remained maximally active at pH 7.4 while the higher temperatures inactivated the enzyme. Km (Michaelis constant) and Vmax (Maximum velocity of enzyme) values for dithionitrobenzene (DTNB) substrate were 1.25 and 0.1 mM, respectively. 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitro benzene (CDNB) uncompetitively inhibited the enzyme substrate reaction and the inhibition was concentration dependent. Ki (inhibition constant) for CDNB was found to be 1.25 mM for 0.01 mM CDNB and 1.3 mM for 0.1 mM CDNB.
  G. Kapoor and H.S. Banyal
  The present study was undertaken to evaluate the humoral immune response directed against purified thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) protein during Plasmodium berghei infection. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR; E.C. was purified from rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. TrxR induced humoral response in Balb/c mice immunized with parasite enzyme using saponin. Prechallenge sera gave ELISA titre of 1:512. IFA showed specificity of antimalarial antibody towards parasite. Immunization with TrxR provided partial protection in mice to P. berghei infection. Progression of P. berghei infection was delayed in TrxR immunized mice compared to normal controls.
  Nisha Devi and H.S. Banyal
  Immunity to malaria can be induced by experimental infection in rodents. A large number of malaria antigens have been identified having their role in protective immune responses to malaria. In this study, mice immunized with soluble antigens of 24,000 g sedimented fraction exhibited strong humoral immune response and this was evaluated by serodiagnostic assays. When 24,000 g fraction were subjected to SDS-PAGE, showed protein bands with molecular weights ranging from 24-80 kDa. It appears that some of these proteins act as target antigens. The immune sera obtained from immunized mice were subjected to ELISA, IFA and in vitro invasion inhibition assay. The antibody titres ranged from 1:2048-1:16384 in immune sera.
  Chhaya Pirta and H.S. Banyal
  Plasmodium berghei when subjected to differential centrifugation resulted in various subcellular fractions. Immune sera obtained from mice immunized with PIII fraction (pellet at 24,000 g) showed very high antibody titres detected by ELISA and IFA as compared to other fractions. Mice immunized with these fractions along with placebo controls were also challenged with 1x105 P. berghei infected erythrocytes. Mice immunized with PIII fraction showed complete in vivo protection against parasite. Purification of antigens through immunoadsorption revealed antigens exhibiting protection in vivo against parasite challenge. Such antigens may act as useful tool in a fight against malaria.
  Monica Nainta and H.S. Banyal
  Humoral response exhibited by a fraction of Plasmodium berghei is evaluated in the present study. Immunization of mice with S fraction (supernatant of 20,000 rpm centrifugation) of Plasmodium berghei exhibited high humoral immune response. S fraction contained proteins of molecular weight ranging from 23.15-205.00 kDa. The humoral response was serodiagnostically analyzed employing ELISA, IFA and in vitro invasion inhibition assays. Antimalarial antibodies significantly inhibited invasion of Plasmodium berghei in short-term invasion assay. From the in vitro culture study it was found that S fraction exhibits a high humoral response and sera of five out of ten immunized mice inhibited more than 50% of invasion of erythrocytes by P. berghei.
  H.S. Banyal , Rani and Nisha Devi
  Different parts of Picrorhiza kurrooa (Kutki) were used to evaluate their antimalarial effect against Plasmodium berghei in vivo in a typical 4 day test. Experimental groups of mice were administered with ethanol extracts of roots and leaves of Picrorhiza kurrooa. On day 4 parasitaemia in control group of mice was 23.15±1.66 whereas, groups treated with roots and leaves extract of P. kurrooa resulted in inhibition of malaria parasite significantly and parasitaemia being 4.14±1.70 and 11.4±1.66, respectively. The effect of root extract was more pronounced compared to leaves.
  Jaswant Singh , M.L. Thakur and H.S. Banyal
  The explorations of the avifauna of Prashar lake and its surrounding area in Mandi district revealed the presence of 95 species of birds belonging to 74 genera spread over 30 families and 11 orders. Of these, 16 species of birds were purely resident and rest 79 showed seasonal local or long range migrations. Of the 79 seasonal local or long range migrants, 39 species were local migrants, 15 were summer visitors, 8 were winter visitors, and 14 species showed summer and 3 species showed winter influx. Analyses of data on relative abundance showed that of the 95 species, 29 (31%) were very common, 45 (47%) common, 19 (20%) uncommon and 2 (2%) rare in Prashar area of Mandi district. Moreover, a majority of the birds (43 species) were insectivorous in nature followed by Graminivorous (14 species), Omnivorous (13 species), Frugivorous (10 species), Scavengers (seen species), aquatic animal eaters (4 species) and vegetable matter eaters and Carnivorous (2 species each). The study further showed that there are two endangered species of birds viz., Egyptian Vulture and Cheer Pheasant in Prashar area.
  Jaswant Singh , M.L. Thakur , D.R. Thakur and H.S. Banyal
  Thirteen species of mammals belonging to 13 genera, 12 families and 6 orders have been recorded from Prashar and surrounding area. Five species belonged to order Carnivora followed by Primates, Artiodactyla and Rodentia (2 species each), Insectivora and Chiroptera (one species each). Families Cercopithecidae and Mustellidae supported a maximum of two species each and other namely Soricidae, Vespertilionidae, Canidae, Ursidae, Felidae, Cervidae, Bovidae, Scuiridae and Muridae were represented by one species each. It has been reported that 11 of the 13 species have been placed under different schedules of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Of these, one species namely Panthera pardus has been placed under Schedule-I of the WLP Act. Semnopithecus ajax has been categorised as endangered, Ursus thibetanus placed under vulnerable categoryand Panthera pardus and Naemorhedus goral declared as near threatened by IUCN.
  H.S. Banyal , Amit Tandon and Monica Nainta
  Extracts of tuber, leaves and fruits from Arisaema jacquemontii Bl. (Himalayan or Jacquemont’s cobra lily) were evaluated for their antimalarial properties against Plasmodium berghei (NK-65) maintained in white Swiss mice, Mus musculus (BALB/c). Peter’s 4 day test was employed and animals were administered to ethanol prepared extracts of plant parts orally. Extracts significantly inhibited multiplication of Plasmodium berghei. Tuber extract inhibited about 70% propagation of parasite followed by leaves and fruit while no parasite was seen in the smears of chloroquine treated mice.
  Ranjit Singh Rana , D.R. Thakur , H.S. Banyal and Asheesh Mehta
  The explorations of avifauna of Chandertal wetland sanctuary revealed the presence of 41 birds species belonging to 35 genera, 12 families, 7 orders of class Aves. Family Passeridae represented by 6 species, Fringilidae by 5 species and Corvidae, Phasianidae and Accipitridae has 4 species each. Family Columbidae has 3 species but families like Musciapidae, Falconidae, Scolopacidae, Charadriidae, Upupidae and Anatidae each represented by single species. There are 20 avian species found in sanctuary which are listed in Schedule IV of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
  H.S. Banyal , Vanita Devi and Nisha Devi
  Extracts of roots and leaves of Centella asiatica (Linnaeus) Urban were used to evaluate their antimalarial effect against Plasmodium berghei in vivo in a typical 4 day test. Alcohol soluble extracts were administered orally in experimental mice along with placebo controls. On day 4 parasitaemia in control group of mice was 21.54±1.75% while in mice treated with roots and leaves extracts showed 5.73±1.14% and 11.89±1.25% infection, respectively.
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