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Articles by H.H. Musa
Total Records ( 17 ) for H.H. Musa
  H.H. Musa , B.C.Li , G.H. Chen and J.H. Cheng
  Cytogenetic analysis always based on examination of chromosome. Before karyotype of an organism including their number, size, shape and internal arrangements, was determined from images taken from cells in metaphase. When banding techniques were developed, the individual chromosomes were identified. In 1960, in-situ hybridization utilized probes labelled with radioisotopes was used. Additionally, spectral karyotyping, multiplex fluorescence in-situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization and more recently array comparative genomic hybridization have proven to be useful for the characterization of structural chromosome aberrations found in conventional cytogenetics. In this review, we summarize the developments of chromosome analysis techniques and layout the applications for each technique in different area of science.
  O. Olowofeso , J.Y. Wang , G.J. Dai1 , Y. Yang , D.M. Mekki and H.H. Musa
  A total of 240 genomic DNAs were isolated from the four Haimen chicken populations: Rugao, Jiangchun, Wan-Nan and Cshiqishi, through a saturated salt procedure. The samples were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 15 microsatellite markers. Amplified PCR-products with the markers were separated on a 12% polyacrylamide gel. Genetic parameters measured included allele number within locus per population, mean allele number across populations, mean allele number among loci for each population, effective allele number for each locus, mean across populations and among loci effective number of alleles (). Polymorphism information content (PIC) per locus and for all loci obtained as well as the average heterozygosity (H) among loci in the populations. The mean allele number for all loci ranged between 5.73±0.85 (Cshiqishi) to 6.00±0.74 (Rugao) and 6.00±0.84 (Jiangchun) with across populations for all loci equals 5.88±0.06; while (H) ranged from 0.6486±0.06 (Wan-Nan) to 0.7017±0.03 (Jiangchun) among loci and across populations, (H) was 0.6828±0.01. The () ranged from 3.96±0.60 (Wan-Nan) to 4.11±0.47 (Rugao); and () have values between 0.6068±0.06 (Wan-Nan) to 0.6509±0.04 (Jiangchun). The average heterozygosity among loci in each population was used further to obtained the cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) and was 99%. Angular genetic distances (DA) calculated ranged between 0.1691 (Rugao vs Wan-Nan) to 0.3372 (Rugao vs Cshiqishi). Dendrogram developed linked Rugao and Jiangchun as closely related, Wan-Nan been intermediate and Cshiqishi distantly related. It was concluded that the markers were suitable for the measurement of all genetic parameters of Haimen chicken populations.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , J.H. Cheng , B.C. Li and D.M. Mekki
  Anka and Rugao chicken breed were reared under the same environment and management. During 12 weeks age the growth rate of Anka breed was found better than Rugao, and similarly within breeds Males were grow faster than females. The results shows that (live weight, carcass weight, dressing out percentage, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight, heart weight, liver weight and abdominal fat weight) were significantly (P< 0.01) different in Anka and Rugao breed, however the Abdominal fat % was statistically non significant (P>0.05) between breeds. Males compared to females shows significantly (P>0.01) higher live weight, carcass weight, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, breast muscle weight, liver weight and abdominal fat weight within two breeds. However, Leg muscle weight, heart weight were non significantly different (P>0.05). In addition dressing out percentage was significantly (P< 0.05) different between males and females in Anka breed and non significantly in Rugao breed. In Anka chicken breed abdominal fat weight was positively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight, and percentage of abdominal fat weight; and it was negatively correlated with leg weight. In Rugao breed abdominal fat weight was positively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight and percentage of abdominal fat. However, the percentage of abdominal fat weight was negatively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight and positively with leg muscle weight and abdominal fat weight.
  W.B. Bao , J.T. Shu , H.H. Musa and G.H. Chen
  Genetic distance and gene flow of all pairwises of 14 Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one jungle fowl and their relations with geographical distances were evaluated in the present study. The pairwise FST/(1-FST) of 15 Chinese chicken breeds was evaluated by 29 microsatellite loci. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus was ranged from 2-25 and the average of expected heterozygosity and PIC of all loci were 0.6683 and 0.50, respectively. The average of genetic differentiation among population measured as FST value, was 16.4% (p< 0.001), all loci were contributed significantly (p< 0.001) to this differentiation. Red jungle fowl and Gushi chickens were observed distant genetic relationship with other breeds, whereas Huainan Partridge and Tibetan chickens were observed close relationship with other breeds. The geographical elements may own the close relationship for particular population pairs. However, the equation FST/ (1-FST) = -0.0162 + 0.0313ln (d) and the result of Mantel’s test (p = 0.054) did not provide enough support for a significant correlation between the genetic and geographical pairwise distances.
  H.H. Musa , S.L. Wu , C.H. Zhu , H.I. Seri and G.Q. Zhu
  Probiotics are defined as microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. The probiotics were improved feed conversion for the target species, reduced morbidity or mortality and benefits for the consumer through improved product quality. In this study, we found that a combination of probiotics with different mechanisms of action could amplify the protective range of bio-therapeutic preparations and the potentiated probiotics are more effective than their components separately. Bacterial probiotics were effective in chickens, pigs and pre-ruminant calves, whereas yeasts and fungal probiotics were given better results in adult ruminants. Probiotics were enhanced the growth of many domestic animals improved the efficacy of forage digestion and quantity and quality of milk, meat and egg. Probiotics protected animals against pathogens, enhanced immune response, reduced antibiotic use and shows high index of safety. The trend for future could be focus on basic research to identify and characterize existing probiotics strains, determine optimal doses needed for certain strain and asses their stability through processing and digestion.
  H.H. Musa , J.H. Cheng , W.B. Bao , J.T. Shu , B.C. Li and G.H. Chen
  Tissues specimens include (liver, kidney, small intestine and abdominal fat) were excised from lean (Rugao) and fat (Anka) chickens, both breeds were raised under the same conditions. The expression of LDL receptor mRNA in various tissues of genetically fat and lean chickens were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The level of gene expression was determined as the ratio of integrated peak area for each individual gene PCR product relative to that of the co-amplified ß-actin internal standard. The results shows that the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was significantly (p< 0.05) different between abdominal fat and liver tissues, while they were non significantly different between the other tissues. The levels of LDLR1 mRNA expression in intestine, kidney and abdominal fat tissues were none significantly different between genetically fat and lean, while it was significantly (p< 0.05) different in liver. In addition, the levels of LDLR5 mRNA expression in various tissues were non significantly different between genetically fat and lean chickens.
  W. Sun , H. Chang , H.H. Musa , Z.P. Yang , K. Tsunoda , Z.J. Ren and R.Q. Geng
  Multivariate analysis was used to investigate the influence of environmental factors from animal habitat on the genetic diversity of sheep populations. Populations were classified based on their morphological features and environmental indices into 2 groups, the 1st group includes Mongolia sheep and Tan sheep, they were distributed in the pastoral and agro-pastoral area, respectively. The area was characterized by high elevation, low rainfall and low annual mean temperature. The 2nd group includes Han large-tailed sheep, Han small-tailed sheep, Tong sheep and Hu sheep, they were in agricultural area and the area was characterized by low elevation, high rainfall and high annual mean temperature. The result showed that the elevation and annual rainfall were play important role in the distribution of sheep populations.
  Bao Wen-Bin , Wu Sheng-Long , Zhang Hong-Xia , Luan De-Qin , H.H. Musa and Chen Guo-Hong
  Sexes of cranes cannot be distinguished visually due to the morphological similarities between male and female. To facilitate the protection program for the endangered birds, red-crowned cranes in particular, genomic DNA was extracted from feather samples and a PCR-based sexing method was established using three primer combinations of avian sex-specific EE0.6 sequence. The specificity of the PCR was confirmed by amplifying genomic DNA from 22 known-sex cranes of seven species. After 30 cycles of amplification, easily distinguishable single bands for males and two bands for females were displayed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sexes of 50 unknown-sex cranes of seven species were successfully identified using the PCR. The noninvasive PCR-based sexing method can not only facilitate the human-assisted breeding of cranes, but also provide useful reference for accurate sexing of other endangered birds.
  H.H. Musa , F.M. El amin , A.H. Suleiman and G.H. Chen
  The study was conducted at University of Nyala Farm. 75 females and 10 males were selected with typical characteristics of the breed to study their reproduction and production traits. Flock statistics for ewes lambing in the winter and wet-summer seasons were recorded and then some reproductive traits were estimated such as conception rate, barrenness rate, fertility, litter size, abortion, lambing rate, twining rate and male ratio. The mean gestation length was 150.44?2.64 days ranging between145-156 days. The effect of ewe age on gestation length was non significant (p>0.05). Male and single born lambs had longer gestation period than female and twinborn lambs. Similarly, overall birth weight of lambs was found to be 2.90?0.50 kg, it was 3.18?0.49 kg for males and 2.70?0.41 kg for females. They were weaned at approximately 3 month of age with an average of 11.55?2.19 kg for males and 9.97?2.12 kg for females, single born lambs were heavier than twin born lambs for both sexes. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 90.00 gram per day, males and single born lambs were grew faster than females and twins born lambs. Similarly, growth rate was determined for the periods of 3 to 6, 6 to 9 and 9 to12 months of age, they observed that single and male lambs exceeded twins and females lambs in growth rate.
  Wu Sheng-Long , H.H. Musa , Bao Wen-Bin , Wang Ke-Hua , Zhu Guo-Qian and Chen Guo-Hong
  The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of mutation in apoVLDL-II (apo very low density lipoprotein II) gene on meat quality traits of genetically fat (Anka) and lean (Rugao) chicken breeds. Meat quality traits such as Water Holding Capacity (WHC), pH, Color Density (CD) and tenderness (Shear value (kg cm 2)) were analyzed from breast muscle. Polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique was developed to analyze a 280 bp region of the apoVLDL-II gene (exon 4). The average gene frequency of two breeds estimated was found to be 0.076±0.008 for allele A and 0.932±0.008 for allele B. The effective number of allele, gene diversity and Shannon`s Information index were 1.1642±0.0195, 0.1408±0.0144 and 0.2691±0.0212, respectively. Mutation in the apoVLDL-II gene was found to significantly (p<0.05) affect meat tenderness, whereas no significant effect was observed on OD, pH and WHC.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , K.H. Wang , B.C. Li , D.M. Mekki , J.T. Shu and H.P. Ju
  Serum cholesterol, lipoprotein concentration and carcass characteristics data were taken in 30 fat and 40 lean chickens. Breeds were differed significantly (p<0.001) in carcass traits and non significantly (p>0.05) in carcass portions. Color density and pH were also differed significantly (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force value were non significant (p>0.05). Both breeds showed positive correlation for carcass traits, while abdominal fat was negatively related with breast muscle in lean breed. Significant difference (p<0.05) were observed in cholesterol and LDL and non significant (p>0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL and HDL level. Cholesterol and triglyceride were respectively related with LDL and VLDL. HDL was observed negatively related with triglyceride and cholesterol. Sex was effect significantly (p<0.05) in triglycerides and VLDL level and non significantly (p>0.05) in cholesterol, HDL and LDL level in fat breed. However, lean breed observed non significant difference (p>0.05) for lipoprotein concentrations. Correlation of lipoprotein concentrations and carcass trait were determined. In both breeds lipoprotein concentrations were negatively related with carcass traits. LDL was positively related with breast muscle and abdominal fat weight and triglyceride with live weight in fat breed. In lean breed cholesterol and LDL were presented positive correlation with all carcass traits.
  B.C. Li , F.Yu , Q. Xu , L.G. Ni , G.H. Chen , X.M. Cheng , H.H. Musa and T.Z. Liu
  Chicken embryos from stage 15 to stage 45 were studied by means of serial section and light microscopy in order to investigate the relationship between the spermatogonium and the testicular development in early chicken embryos. The results showed that the glycogen in the PGCs (primordial germ cells) cytoplasm reduced gradually at the stage 22-28 (3.5th-5th hatching day). On the stage 29 (6th hatching day), the gonad of the embryo appeared the feature of testis and the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm reduced further. On the stage 31 (7th hatching day), the differentiation of ovary or testis was obvious and the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm later disappeared. On the stage 34 (8th hatching day), the testicular cord had began to differentiate. The each cord had been solid tubule with the spermatogonium. On the stage 35-37 (9th-11th hatching day), the number of testicular cord had been increased following embryonic development. The spermatogoniums were monolayer located in cord. At this stage, fewer sustentacular cells had been differentiated, while difficult to distinguish. On the stage 38-40 (12th-14th hatching day), the seminiferous tubules had been formed typically, the number of spermatogonium increased as well as sustentacular cells and the interstitial cells in seminiferous distributed in groups. On the stage 40-45 (16th-19th hatching day), the testis on the right was a little bigger than that of the left, the number of spermatogonium increased obviously and appeared like clusters of grape in the middle of seminiferous. Lumina in seminiferous tubule had formed and spermatogonium aligned with different layers.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , J.H. Cheng , D.M. Mekki , S.H.Xu and J. Huang
  Lipogenesis plays a role in the maintenances of body composition in the growing animals. Lipogensis was regulated in the liver and adipose tissue by the composition of macronutrients in diet. High carbohydrates and little fat was elevated lipogenesis than rich fat and low carbohydrates. Serum samples were preferred because of cholesterol and triglyceride concentration is about 3-5% higher in serum than in EDTA plasma, although no significant serum plasma difference was observed for HDL. There are a variety of methods to measure the lipoprotein classes. All require separation of the classes before they can be measured and recently analysis was performed usingenzymatic kits. Hormonal regulation of lipogenesis has been investigated by measuring hormone levels in the blood as a function of dietary state and by ablating specific endocrine glands in the intact animals, following replacement therapy with specific hormone. Hormone identified in experiments with intact animals was then tested in cell culture systems. Similarly the effect of nutrition on lipoprotein metabolism was reviewed. In the species point of view, the turkey in contrast to chicken seems to be a bird in which muscle growth is more important than adipose tissue growth. This difference in rate of fat deposition in extra-hepatic tissue is due to inherited differences. On the other hands, atherosclerotic plaques were found more severe in the quail selected for high cholesterol than in that selected for low cholesterol.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H.H. Musa , Z.P. Yang , D.M. Mekki and E.A. Mukisira
  The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance. Many research reports have clearly demonstrated that energy, protein and minerals intake are the most important nutritional factors affecting reproduction and therefore milk production in dairy farms. This is particularly evident on smallholder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate. On these farms, voluntary feed intake in relation to the feed required for maintenance is the most important factor determining the animal`s body condition. Many of the dairy animals on smallholder farms cannot build sufficient body reserves (particularly energy and protein) due to lack of adequate feed. As a direct consequence of feed inadequacy, dairy stock on most smallholder resource-poor farms are often in poor body condition (emaciated). Conception rate and calving intervals have been shown to be highly correlated, to by weight and body condition. The study revealed that animals with low body weights showed low conception rate and long calving interval. Energy and protein have shown to maintain essential levels of blood cholesterol and improve pregnancy from 42 to 72% respectively. Correlation of reproductive hormone cycle, calf and lamb birth rates, weaning rates, lactation length and yield with plane of nutrition, have been adequately illustrated. This is evidenced by the current high incidences of dairy cow infertility on smallholder farms in Kenya. Based on the literature reviewed, the current study concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Poor nutrition is also largely incriminated for predisposing animals to diseases leading to high mortality and morbidity rates on these farms. It is therefore perceived that improvement of ruminant livestock diets on smallholder farms will greatly improve reproductive performance and therefore herd productivity on smallholder farms. In the long run, this will also impact positively on the economic status of the household.
  H.H. Musa , A.H. Suleiman , T.P. Lanyasunya , O. Olowofeso and D.M. Mekki
  eventeen male Ostrich chicks (Ostruiothio, Camelus camelus) aged one month old were brought from Radom National Park to the research farm of University of Nyala, both in Sudan, and reared indoor, concentrate rations were formulated and provided ad-libitum and water equally supplied. During the study period, chick behaviour were observed, body weight gained (g/day), feed intake (g/day), water consumption (liter/day) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were found to be 178.64, 447.91, 4.18 and 2.39, respectively. Rapid growth rate during the age of 2 to 4 months resulted to leg deformation which eventually leads to the death of some chicks with mortality rate 41.20% at the end of the experiment. The body measurements at different ages of chicks were highly significant (P< 0.05). There were high positive correlations between live weight and other parameters estimated (shank diameter and length, nick diameter and length, wing length, body length, heart girth and bird high).
  T.P. Lanyasunya , L.W. Wamae , H.H. Musa , O. Olowofeso and I.K. Lokwaleput
  Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists) to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity). Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004). This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37). Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2%) had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%), Kitui (9.6%), Thika (3.9%), and Machakos (2.9%). Livestock get poisoned when they consume contaminated feeds. Virtually all feeds are susceptible so long as conditions permit mould colonization. Mouldy protein supplements, poultry manure, cereal grains and their by-products are the primary sources of mycotoxins found in homemade dairy concentrates on smallholder farms. Aflatoxin M1 is metabolic breakdown product of aflatoxin B1 and can appear in the milk of lactating cows consuming significant quantities of aflatoxin B1 emanating from mouldy feedstuffs. When the level of M1 appearing in milk and other dairy products is more than 20 ppb (concentration accepted by Kenya authorities), then it becomes a food safety hazard. Control of mycotoxins in dairy diets on smallholder farms would reduce the likelihood of livestock poisoning and concentration of mycotoxin residues in milk and other animal products destined for human consumption.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , A.H. Suleiman and D.M. Mekki
  The genetically fat Anka and lean Rugao chicken breeds were used for this study, both are reared in the same environment and management system. Body weight and abdominal fat weight were determined at 12 weeks of age. A polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism technique was applied to detect mutation in intron 8 of lipoprotein lipase gene. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test shows that allele frequency was significantly (p<0.01) different in Rugao population in locus LPL10 and non significantly different in Anka population. In addition chi-square test shows that populations were significantly (p<0.01) differed from each other. Body weight in fat breed was significantly (p<0.05) different between LPL genotypes in LPL9 and LPL10 loci. However, the abdominal fat was significantly (p<0.05) different in LPL10 locus. In addition lean breed shows non significant difference on body weight and fat weight. Genotype effect within two breeds showed that body weight and fat weight in LPL9 and LPL10 loci were significantly (p<0.05) higher in heterozygous AC compared with homozygous AA.
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