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Articles by Gautam Palit
Total Records ( 4 ) for Gautam Palit
  Pratibha Singh , Neetu Singh and Gautam Palit
  Back ground: Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a common disorder, affecting approximately 10-20% of the western population and often has a debilitating effect on the daily lives of patients. Result: GERD can be described as any symptomatic condition or histopathologic alternation resulting from episodes of gastroesophageal reflux. Transient relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter is believed to be the primary mechanism of the disease although the underlying cause remains uncertain. GERD usually manifests as heartburn, regurgitation, or dysphagia and predisposes to development of esophagitis, stricture, Barrett’s metaplasia, esophageal adenocarcinoma. The various agents currently used for treatment of GERD include proton pump inhibitors, antacids, H2-blockers, mucoprotective substances and prokinetic agents. Conclusion: This review gives an overview of the pharmacological management of GERD and summarizes the state of the art with these agents.
  Shawon Lahiri and Gautam Palit
  Background: Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanisms of gastric mucosal defense and repair. In the early 20th century, peptic ulcer disease was related to excessive acid secretion resulting from stressful lifestyle. The importance of the interaction of acid and pepsin in the formation of peptic ulcer disease remained unclear until the second half of the 20th century. With the introduction of histamine type 2 receptor antagonists (H2 receptor antagonists) in the 1970s, progress was made in reducing acid secretion and providing relief of symptoms. With further advancements in medical research, it is now well recognized that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) contribute to the development of peptic ulcer disease. Moreover, the identification of the role of a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the pathogenesis of acid-peptic diseases, its elimination with antimicrobial drugs could effectively cure the disease stimulated new approaches to prevention and therapy. These advances in the discovery of novel and more effective anti-ulcer therapeutics is due to the introduction of a larger number of newer experimental methods to evaluate their anti-ulcer activity in different types of gastro-duodenal ulcers and simultaneously to study their mechanism of action. Several in vivo models of gastric damage have been well characterized and are the primary tools used by gastrointestinal physiologists, pharmacologists and pathologists to study new mechanisms of pathogenesis and new pharmacological targets for ulcer disease. Conclusion: This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer and gastric cytoprotective activity of novel anti-ulcer agents.
  Neetu Singh , Pratibha Singh , Gautam Palit and Vijai Lakshmi
  Aim: Preliminary study revealed that gedunin and photogedunin, from Xylocarpus granatum exhibit anti-ulcer property. In an attempt to clarify the mechanism involved in its anti-ulcerogenic potential, an advanced studies to examine their effects on potent gastric acid secretagogues i.e., plasma gastrin and gastric mucosal histamine in pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. In addition, an evaluation of the cytoprotective function of these compounds by assessing the gastric PGE2 levels in alcohol induced gastric ulcer model. Methods: Adult Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 180-220 g procured from National Laboratory Animal Centre, CDRI, were used in the study. Rats were housed three to four per cage, in a room with temperature regulated at 22±2°C, with a 12 h/12 h light/dark cycle (lights on 07:00 h, lights off 19:00 h). Standard chow pellets and water were given ad libitum, except during the period when food deprivation was applied. Compounds of Xylocarpus granatum and standard drugs like omeprazole (10 mg kg-1) and sucralfate (500 mg kg-1) were prepared in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as suspension and administered orally 45 min prior to exposure of ulcerogens to the animals at a volume of 1 mL/200 g of body weight. All animals were deprived of food for 16 h before ulcerogens exposure and were divided into three groups, (n = 6). Control group of animals were treated with vehicle 1% CMC. Compound gedunin and photogedunin (20 mg kg-1, p.o.) were tested against alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer model. Standard anti-ulcer drugs, omeprazole (10 mg kg-1, p.o.) were treated in pyloric ligation model and sucralfate (500 mg kg-1, p.o.) in alcohol induced ulcer model. Results: Gedunin and photogedunin exerted significant acid lowering activity in pyloric ligated rats as evident through reduced free acidity and total acidity as well as in vitro H+K+-ATPase activity. Also, both compounds normalized the plasma gastrin and tissue histamine level compared to ulcerated rats. Contrastingly, both compounds illustrated no significant increase in gastric PGE2 level and mucin content compared to ulcer control rats. Conclusion: Thus, the study suggested that gedunin and photogedunin imparts gastro-protection through antisecretory mechanism.
  Vijai Lakshmi , Santosh Kumar Agarwal , Abbas Ali Mahdi , Vaibhav Mishra , Haushila Prasad Pandey and Gautam Palit
  Background: Currently, natural products have been shown to present interesting biological and pharmacological activities and are used as chemotherapeutic agents. Plants have historically been used in treating cancer and are recognized for their ability to produce secondary metabolites. Objective: The current study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of total extract as well as several fractions from Cantharanthus roseous Linn. (Family; Apocyanaceae) leaves. The bioassay guided chloroform fraction of the ethanol extract yielded two major compounds which have shown a promising antiulcer activity. Materials and methods: C. roseus leaves were evaluated against Cold Restraint Ulcer (CRU), Aspirin (AS), Alcohol (AL) and Pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity was observed. Results: Potential anti-ulcer activity was observed against CRU (75.18%), AS (50.00%), AL (65.00%) and PL (50.00%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10 mg kg-1, p.o.) showed 77.34% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL induced ulcer model. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg kg-1, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Ethanol extract of C. roseus leaves significantly reduced free acidity (17.78%), total acidity (8.05%) and up regulated mucin secretion by 25.11%, respectively. Phytochemical investigations of chloroform fraction yielded vincamine and vindoline . Further, Fr-CHCl3 and its compounds vincamine and vindoline significantly showing protection against CRU 81.08 and 81.20%, respectively, confirming their anti-ulcer activity. Discussion and conclusion: The anti-ulcerogenic activity of the chloroform fraction might be due to its anti-secretory activity. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-ulcer effect of C. roseus. Therefore, it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.
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