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Articles by G.I.O. Badifu
Total Records ( 2 ) for G.I.O. Badifu
  J.C. Anuonye , G.I.O. Badifu , C.U. Inyang , M.A. Akpapunam , C.U. Odumudu and V.I. Mbajika
  The effect of extrusion variables on the protein dispersibility index and tyrpsin inhibitor activity of blends of acha and soybean were studied using response surface analysis. Soybean flour was mixed with acha flour at 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% levels of substitution. Moisture content of the mixtures was adjusted to 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35%. Extrusion was carried out in a single screw Brabender extruder by adjusting the screw speed from 90 to 120, 150, 180 and 210 rpm and barrel temperature from 100 to 125, 150, 175 and 200°C following a 4-variable central composite rotatable response surface design. Protein dispersibility index and trypsin inhibitor activity of raw and extruded blends were evaluated. Raw acha, soybean flour and raw acha/soybean flour blends had PDI of 86.84, 91.84 and 74.27%, respectively compared to extrudate PDI which ranged from 3.77-8.70%. Blending decreased the protein dispersibility index of the raw flours while extrusion cooking significantly improved the protein dispersibility. For TIA, the results showed that TIA of extrudates ranged from 4.0-46.1 units, compared to the raw samples (64.5 units for raw soybean). The results showed that extrusion cooking reduced TIA by about (70.33-97.40%) with feed moisture and barrel temperature exerting the greatest influence on extrudate TIA. The decrease in TIA corresponded to increased protein dispersibility of extrudate samples.
  J.C. Anuonye , G.I.O. Badifu , C.U. Inyang and M.A. Akpapunam
  Acha and soybean flours were mixed in five ratios 100:0, 87.5:12.5, 75:25, 62.5:37.5 and 50:50% of acha and soy flour respectively. The moisture content of the blends was adjusted to 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35%. Extrusion was carried out using a Brabender single screw laboratory extruder following a four variable response surface analysis design where the extruder screw speed was adjusted from 90, 120, 150 and 180-210 rpm and barrel temperature from 100, 125, 150, 175-200°C. Amylose content and pasting properties of raw and extruded samples were evaluated. Results showed that increase in feed composition (acha flour) resulted in increased amylose content in the blend. Amylose content decreased with higher barrel temperatures while increased moisture levels of blend caused increased amylose levels in extruded products. The pasting characteristics showed that acha native starch had normal non-waxy starch pasting properties while blended and extrudate samples did not show any recognizable peaks which were indicative that blending and extrusion altered significantly the rheological properties of the extrudates. Extrusion processing reduced significantly (p<0.05) the peak viscosity, the peak time, the set back index, while, consistency index significantly (p<0.05) increased. The results showed that there was amylose content lowering indicative of significant (p<0.05) amylose-lipid complexing. The extrudates and blends would be ideal for weaning, convalescent and convenient food formulations.
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