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Articles by G.H. Shahidi Bonjar
Total Records ( 10 ) for G.H. Shahidi Bonjar
  M. Jorjandi , G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , A. Baghizadeh , G.R. Sharifi Sirchi , H. Massumi , F. Baniasadi , S. Aghighi and P. Rashid Farokhi
  Problem statement: Soil Actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. have showed antagonistic activity against wide range of plant pathogens. In the recent decades they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. Onion neck rot or gray mold caused by Botrytis allii have imposed economic post harvest damages to onion bulbs and decreased its storage durability and market value.
To investigate for biocontrol means against the pathogen, antagonistic activity of 50 isolates of soil actinomycetes were assayed through agar disk method and dual culture bioassays. Active isolates were exposed to chloroform for detection of antibiotic. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value and solubility of active crude extract in organic solvents were determined for Streptomyces isolate No. 347 which showed a unique and stable property of inhibiting Botrytis allii. To investigate the antagonistic effect of Streptomyces isolate No 347 on control of onion gray mold, four different treatments were tested by means of Tukey HSD test.
From the tested isolates, 13 showed anti gray mold activities. Exposure of active isolates to chloroform revealed that Streptomyces isolates No 347, 263 and 350 retained their antifungal activities. The active metabolite(s) of Streptomyces isolate No 347 was polar, soluble in H2O but insoluble in chloroform and methanol. MIC of the crude was determined as 0.05 mg mL-1 against B. allii. Stability of the active crude in distilled water at room temperature (12-30°C) was about 6 months. Statistical studies indicated that Streptomyces isolates No 347 can decrease losses of neck rot with significant level (p<0.05).
The future goals include investigation of the antifungal genes in active isolates as candidates for genetic engineering of onion for increased tolerance against B. allii.
  F. Baniasadi , G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , A. Baghizadeh , A. Karimi Nik , M. Jorjandi , S. Aghighi and P. Rashid Farokhi
  Problem statement: High level of biosafety and non adverse effects on the environment of biocontrol strategies of pest management, are priorities of tomorrow's world agriculture. Actinomycetes are active biocontrol agents due to their antagonistic properties against wide range of plant pathogens particularly fungi. Fungal pathogens are liable for a big part of damages in agriculture economy.
In the present research antifungal bioactivity of 50 isolates of Actinomycetes collected from soils of Kerman province of Iran was investigated against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.), the causal agent of stem rot in sunflower, through agar disc method and dual culture bioassays. The Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which several biological characterizations performed. Greenhouse studies were achieved to confirm laboratory results.
Among the tested Streptomyces isolates, 10 isolates revealed antagonistic properties in dual culture procedure from which isolate No. 363 showed highest bioactivity. The active metabolite of Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was polar and well soluble in H2O. Using agar-disc method, progressive growth of the pathogen was highly reduced by the antagonist through exhibiting ability to constitute fungus-free zones of inhibitions. The results indicated that isolate No. 363 was a proper candidate for field biocontrol studies.
Results may open a horizon for production of resistant transgenic plants having antifungal properties originated from biologically active Streptomyces spp. recognition and production of effective metabolite(s) of Streptomyces spp. which was responsible for antifungal activities will be our commercial goal due to rich reserves of soil borne Actinomycetes in Iran.
  M. Ebrahimi Zarandi , G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , F. Padasht Dehkaei , S.A. Ayatollahi Moosavi , P. Rashid Farokhi and S. Aghighi
  Soil Actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. have antagonistic activity against wide range of plant pathogens. In the recent decades they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. In search for finding such principles, in vitro suppression of Magnaporthe oryzae the causal agent of rice blast disease was studied by use of Streptomyces sindeneusis isolate 263 in greenhouse. Spray of rice seedling-leaves with of mixed spore suspension of the pathogen and S. sindeneusis isolate 263 resulted in strong inhibition of the pathogen and suppression of leaf symptoms. Propagation of the antagonist crude sap was performed in aqueous cultures and bioactivity was monitored in shaked cultures. Ongoing goals of this research include isolation, characterization and identification of the active metabolites and future goals include identification of active genes for use in development of recombinant DNAs in transgenic rice varieties bearing elevated resistance to infections by M. oryzae.
  G.H. Shahidi Bonjar and A. Karimi Nik
  Increase of antibacterial resistance is a global growing-problem. Isolation of microbial agents less susceptible to regular antibiotics and recovery of increasing resistant isolates during antibacterial therapy is rising throughout the world which highlights the need for new principles. In treating burns, dermatophytes and infectious diseases, use of plants is common in traditional medicine of Iran. According to the collected information about herbal remedies of such plants, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of the plants were determined by in vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fluorescens at 20 mg ml-1. From 160 plant species in 65 families, 13 species (8.1%) in 12 families (18.4%) showed anti-Pseudomona activities. Activities included 6.2% against P. aeruginosa and 7.5% against P. fluorescens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the actives were determined using two fold serial dilutions. Most active plants against both bacterial species were Dianthus caryophyllus L., Terminalia chebula (Gaertner) Retz. and Myrtus communis L. with the MIC of 3.75, 1.87 and 7.5 mg ml-1 against P. aeruginosa; 0.46, 0.93 and 1.87 mg ml-1 against P. fluorescens, respectively.
  G.H. Shahidi Bonjar
  From 195 plant samples in 76 families used by Iranian Native People for curing infectious maladies, methanolic extracts of 64 samples in 37 families showed antibacterial activity at least against one bacterial species of Bordetella bronchoseptica, Micrococcus luteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. High activity belonged to Terminalia chebula, Myrtus communis, Dianthus coryophyllus, Rhus coriaria, Lawsonia inermis and Alpinia officinarum against B. bronchiseptica; T. chebula, M. communis, D. coryophyllus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ranunculus asitaticus, R. coriaria, Rheum ribes, Chrozophora verbasafalia, Ephedra intermedia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Citrullus colcocynthis against M. luteus; R. ribes, R. coriaria and G. glabra against K. pneumoniae. No plant showed high or medium activity against Serratia marcescens. Umbelliferae with 7, Labiatae with 6 and Compositae with 4, had most number of active samples per plant family. Lowest MIC belonged to T. chebula (ripen seeds) and M. communis (leaves) as 0.93 mg ml-1, against B. bronchiseptica and to T. chebula (unripe seeds) as 0.46 mg ml-1 against M. luteus and to R. ribes and R. coriaria as 1.87 mg ml-1 against K. pneumoniae. Most susceptible bacterium was B. bronchiseptica and most resistant bacterium was S. marcescens. All of the active extracts were well stable at room temperature up to 18 months and did not show any reduction of activity against the sensitive bacterial isolates.
  F. Sharifi , G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , S. Shafii Bafti , B. Barkhordar , S. Aghighi and M.J. Mahdavi
  Streptomyces sp. are of the most attractive sources of biologically active compounds. In the recent decades, they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. In search of finding such principles, in vitro suppression of Alternaria solani was studied by use of Streptomyces antagonists. A. solani was sensitive to several species mainly Streptomyces plicatus, S. olivaceus and two unidentified actinomycetes. Activity versus time was monitored in S. olivaceus in solid and shaked cultures. Ongoing goals of this research include isolation, characterization and identification of the active metabolites. Future goals include identification of active genes for use in development of recombinant DNAs in transgenic hosts bearing elevated resistance to infections by Alternaria sp.
  F. Aram , G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , M.J. Mahdavi , S. Mansouri , P. Rashid Farrokhi , N. Bana Hosein Pour , M. Shekari , A. Ghasemi and S. Aghighi
  Streptomyces sp. are mostly soil-inhabitants and several species are responsible for important diseases in plants, S. scabies causal agent of Common Scab disease of potato and human S. somaliensis causal agent of Mycetoma. Methanolic extracts of leaves of Myrthus communis and seeds of Terminalia chebula, which had documented uses in Iranian herbal-medicine, were tested for anti-Streptomyces activity against S. scabies. For bioassays, concentration of 50 mg mL-1 of methanolic extracts prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide: methanol (v/v, 1/1) and tested in well diffusion method. Inhibitory zones (IZ) in contrast to controls were measured five days after inoculation at 29°C. Both plants showed high biological activity against S. scabies. Future goals include bioassays on human and further plant pathogenic Streptomycetes.
  Khalesi, E. , G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , S. Aghighi , M.J. Mahdavi and A. Ayatollahi Moosavi
  Emergence of Azole-resistant Candida albicans is a growing problem worldwide. Searching for new principles is a global need with high priority. With this aim, in vitro anticandidal activity of pure cultures of soil Actinomycetes isolated from Kerman Province were screened against a registered isolate of C. albicans (PTCC No. 5027). In comparison with Clotrimazole, the drug of choice of the pathogen, from 50 tested Actinomycetes, crude sap of Streptomyces olivaceus strain 115 showed in vitro antagonistic anti-yeast effect on the pathogen. The tests performed aseptically on lawn cultures of the pathogen in well diffusion bioassay system. Inhibitory zones represented complete suppression of C. albicans. The nature and further biological activity of the active principle are under investigation.
  G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , P. Rashid Farrokhi , Shafii Bafti , S. Aghighi , M.J. Mahdavi and A. Aghelizadeh
  In greenhouse cucurbits of Kerman Province, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis Schlecht, Emend (Snyder and Hansen) causes root rot and fusarium wilt. To investigate for new biofungicides, antagonistic activity of soil Actinomycetes isolates were assayed against the pathogen from which Streptomyces olivaceus strain 115 showed anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The active strain was grown in aqueous media on rotary shakers to monitor activity versus time and prepare active dry crude for further biological and physical studies. Antifungal activity was of fungistatic type on the pathogen mycelia. From the results of our studies it is clear that usage of S. olivaceus strain 115 as a biofungistatic natural product applied as an amendment in greenhouse soil mix will lead to inhibition or reduction of the pathogen effects.
  G.H. Shahidi Bonjar , B. Barkhordar , N. Pakgohar , S. Aghighi , S. Biglary , P. Rashid Farrokhi , M. Aminaii , M.J. Mahdavi and A. Aghelizadeh
  Actinomycetes enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of plant root-pathogens. These microorganisms were isolated from agricultural soils of Kerman as pure cultures. Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, causes gummosis and root rot of pistachio trees worldwide. From 130 Actinomycetes isolates, 12 inhibited growth of the pathogen of pistachio gummosis in culture plates and four of the most active isolates exhibited biological control of the pathogen under greenhouse conditions. When plants were grown in sterile soil mix and treated both with Actinomycetes and the pathogen, the number of healthy plants increased dramatically and the symptoms on diseased plants were less severe in comparison with seedlings treated with the pathogen alone. From the collected data it was well conclusive that in greenhouse tests, soil applications of Actinomycetes controlled causal agent of root rot of pistachio seedlings. Antifungal activity was of fungicidal type on the pathogen mycelia. From the stand point of biotechnological goals, the results indicate that the active isolates can be investigated for use as biofertilizers, biofungicides and use in future development of recombinant DNA in pistachio trees bearing elevated resistance to gummosis. Field trials of the active isolates are under investigation.
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