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Articles by G.H. Chen
Total Records ( 17 ) for G.H. Chen
  H.H. Musa , B.C.Li , G.H. Chen and J.H. Cheng
  Cytogenetic analysis always based on examination of chromosome. Before karyotype of an organism including their number, size, shape and internal arrangements, was determined from images taken from cells in metaphase. When banding techniques were developed, the individual chromosomes were identified. In 1960, in-situ hybridization utilized probes labelled with radioisotopes was used. Additionally, spectral karyotyping, multiplex fluorescence in-situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization and more recently array comparative genomic hybridization have proven to be useful for the characterization of structural chromosome aberrations found in conventional cytogenetics. In this review, we summarize the developments of chromosome analysis techniques and layout the applications for each technique in different area of science.
  H.H. Musa , B.C. Li , G.H. Chen , T.P. Lanyasunya , Q. Xu and W.B. Bao
  Traditional karyotyping is invented in animal research for several decades depend on the analysis of characteristic banding patterns along the length of chromosome. In the present study chicken metaphase chromosomes were obtained by peripheral blood lymphocyte culture techniques, G-band patterns were obtained with trypsin and Giemsa, C-band patterns were treated with barium and the nuclear organizer regions (NORs) were identified by silver staining. All species studied presented a diploid number of 78 chromosomes, with 10 pairs of macro chromosomes including the sex chromosome and 29 pairs of micro chromosomes. G-band patterns were found quite different between breeds. The dark stained of C-band was observed on micro chromosome and W chromosome. Karyotype resemblance near coefficient was possible for breeds clustering. The position of centromers, relative length, arm ratio and the evolutionary distance of chicken breeds was estimated. The application of chromosome karyotype and banding techniques was used to study the origin, evolution and relationship of species, also used for gene location and sex determination. While, in the Medical field was used to identify genetic disease. The techniques was consider as a base for further molecular research, for example FISH.
  B.C. Li , G.H. Chen , J. Qin , X.S. Wu , S.L. Wu and Z.T. Cai
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of isolation and culture of PGCs from various tissues of chicken embryos at specific developmental stages including: the circulating blood of stage 14 embryos (hatched for 48-52hrs), the genital ridge of stage 19 embryos (hatched for 68-72hrs) and the gonad of stage 28 embryos (hatched for 128-132hrs). Ficoll density-gradient centrifugation is a standard method for the purification of PGCs from fetal blood. The genital ridge and gonadal tissue contain more PGCs in total but must first be digested with trypsin-EDTA to give a single cell suspension containing a mixture of PGCs and other contaminating cell types. In these experiments, we cultured PGCs from the genital ridge and from gonadal tissue before and after Ficoll density-gradient purification. In all cases, PGCs were subsequently cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. The results demonstrated that trypsin-EDTA alone of the genital ridge of stage 19 embryos yielded a total of2.7 x 104 per embryo of which 89.5% were viable. After Ficoll density-gradient purification of these cells the yield was 1.8 x 104 of which 87.5% were viable. Processing of the gonadal tissue of stage 28 embryos yielded a total of 3.1 x 104 PGCs per embryo of which 90.0% were viable. It was clear that the PGC yield with trypsin-EDTA alone was higher (P< 0.01) than the yield of the full procedure which included the Ficoll density-gradient purification step. The results of PGC culture from the three developmental stages indicated that the survival time was longest (80-88 hours) for PGCs obtained from stage 19 embryos. At this stage, a large number of PGCs had accumulated in the genital ridge which facilitated the isolation procedure. These results suggest that the highest yield of PGCs per embryo can be achieved by trypsin-EDTA treatment of genital ridge tissue from stage 19 chicken embryos.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , J.H. Cheng , B.C. Li and D.M. Mekki
  Anka and Rugao chicken breed were reared under the same environment and management. During 12 weeks age the growth rate of Anka breed was found better than Rugao, and similarly within breeds Males were grow faster than females. The results shows that (live weight, carcass weight, dressing out percentage, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight, heart weight, liver weight and abdominal fat weight) were significantly (P< 0.01) different in Anka and Rugao breed, however the Abdominal fat % was statistically non significant (P>0.05) between breeds. Males compared to females shows significantly (P>0.01) higher live weight, carcass weight, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, breast muscle weight, liver weight and abdominal fat weight within two breeds. However, Leg muscle weight, heart weight were non significantly different (P>0.05). In addition dressing out percentage was significantly (P< 0.05) different between males and females in Anka breed and non significantly in Rugao breed. In Anka chicken breed abdominal fat weight was positively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight, and percentage of abdominal fat weight; and it was negatively correlated with leg weight. In Rugao breed abdominal fat weight was positively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight and percentage of abdominal fat. However, the percentage of abdominal fat weight was negatively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight and positively with leg muscle weight and abdominal fat weight.
  G.H. Chen , J.H. Cheng , E.S. Shuiep , W.B. Bao and H. H. Musa
  Total of 120 chickens from Anka and Rugao breed includes (60 individual per breed and 30 individual per sex) were taken as a representative sample and were slaughtered at Jiangsu Poultry Institute, China, and then the carcasses were dissected manually. Water holding capacity, color density, pH and tenderness were estimated from breast muscle. Breeds were found differed significantly (P< 0.05) in color density, pH and tenderness. Regarding to water holding capacity no significant (P>0.05) different were noted between breeds. Tenderness, the values for shear force were significantly (P>0.01) higher in males than females in two chicken breeds. In addition color density, pH and water holding capacity were non significantly difference (P>0.05). In Anka chicken breed color density was positive correlated with pH, tenderness and water holding capacity, and similarly pH was positively related with tenderness. While in Rugao all meat quality traits shows negative correlation with each others, specially tenderness was observed positive correlation with color density.
  W.B. Bao , J.T. Shu , H.H. Musa and G.H. Chen
  Genetic distance and gene flow of all pairwises of 14 Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one jungle fowl and their relations with geographical distances were evaluated in the present study. The pairwise FST/(1-FST) of 15 Chinese chicken breeds was evaluated by 29 microsatellite loci. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus was ranged from 2-25 and the average of expected heterozygosity and PIC of all loci were 0.6683 and 0.50, respectively. The average of genetic differentiation among population measured as FST value, was 16.4% (p< 0.001), all loci were contributed significantly (p< 0.001) to this differentiation. Red jungle fowl and Gushi chickens were observed distant genetic relationship with other breeds, whereas Huainan Partridge and Tibetan chickens were observed close relationship with other breeds. The geographical elements may own the close relationship for particular population pairs. However, the equation FST/ (1-FST) = -0.0162 + 0.0313ln (d) and the result of Mantelís test (p = 0.054) did not provide enough support for a significant correlation between the genetic and geographical pairwise distances.
  H.H. Musa , J.H. Cheng , W.B. Bao , J.T. Shu , B.C. Li and G.H. Chen
  Tissues specimens include (liver, kidney, small intestine and abdominal fat) were excised from lean (Rugao) and fat (Anka) chickens, both breeds were raised under the same conditions. The expression of LDL receptor mRNA in various tissues of genetically fat and lean chickens were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The level of gene expression was determined as the ratio of integrated peak area for each individual gene PCR product relative to that of the co-amplified ß-actin internal standard. The results shows that the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was significantly (p< 0.05) different between abdominal fat and liver tissues, while they were non significantly different between the other tissues. The levels of LDLR1 mRNA expression in intestine, kidney and abdominal fat tissues were none significantly different between genetically fat and lean, while it was significantly (p< 0.05) different in liver. In addition, the levels of LDLR5 mRNA expression in various tissues were non significantly different between genetically fat and lean chickens.
  Musa, H.H. , F.M. El amin , A.H. Suleiman , G.H. Chen , O. Olowofeso and D.M Mekki
  A two phase study was conducted using a total of forty-five West African Sheep lambs. The first phase was from birth to one year of age and the second phase was from one year to four years of age. The lambs were grouped using their dental arrangements at the upper and lower jaws, respectively. Their body measurements were carried out at both the experimental and field levels. Body length, heart girth, height at withers and chest depth were measured. Experimental lambs were taken at birth, weaning, one year age and adult animals at one to four years of age. The effect of sex and birth type was investigated. Similarly, the same measurements were taken for the surveyed animals from birth to one-month of age and for adult animals. The study indicated that surveyed animals exceeded experimental animals in all the body measurements taken.
  H. H. Musa , E. S. Shuiep , Ibtisam, E. M. El Zubier and G.H. Chen
  Some reproductive and productive traits of the One-humped Camel dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Western Sudan were studied. The results of reproductive traits presented in this study indicated that Camel was conceived and calved through out the year and a high incidence was observed in wet-summer season. Age at first oestrus (months), oestrus cycle (days) oestrus duration (hours) was 39.24±5.78, 12.29±4.09 and 18.56±8.01, respectively. Age at first calving (months), gestation length (days) and calving interval (month) was 52.41±7.74, 370.28±19.06 and 20.96±3.51, respectively. Calves were weaned at 275.09±24.18days; milk yield per day was 9.62±3.09 liter during 2.85±0.83 milking number per day. Similarly, lactation length was estimated 303.98±6.03day and the peak of milk yield was attended at 9.09±2.09 year of age. The number of calf per age was similar estimated 12.66±2.39 calf. Wet-summer was observed a high mortality rate among the other seasons.
  H.H. Musa , F.M. El amin , A.H. Suleiman and G.H. Chen
  The study was conducted at University of Nyala Farm. 75 females and 10 males were selected with typical characteristics of the breed to study their reproduction and production traits. Flock statistics for ewes lambing in the winter and wet-summer seasons were recorded and then some reproductive traits were estimated such as conception rate, barrenness rate, fertility, litter size, abortion, lambing rate, twining rate and male ratio. The mean gestation length was 150.44?2.64 days ranging between145-156 days. The effect of ewe age on gestation length was non significant (p>0.05). Male and single born lambs had longer gestation period than female and twinborn lambs. Similarly, overall birth weight of lambs was found to be 2.90?0.50 kg, it was 3.18?0.49 kg for males and 2.70?0.41 kg for females. They were weaned at approximately 3 month of age with an average of 11.55?2.19 kg for males and 9.97?2.12 kg for females, single born lambs were heavier than twin born lambs for both sexes. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 90.00 gram per day, males and single born lambs were grew faster than females and twins born lambs. Similarly, growth rate was determined for the periods of 3 to 6, 6 to 9 and 9 to12 months of age, they observed that single and male lambs exceeded twins and females lambs in growth rate.
  Musa, H.H , A.H. Suleiman , F.M. El amin , G.H. Chen , D.M. Mekki and B.C. Li
  The West African sheep was originated in the West African countries, brought to Sudan in 1930. These breeds include (Uda, Sankara and Weila) strains. They are normally reared to gather as mixed pastoral flocks, followed different routes during summer and autumn seasons. In the first phase of this study 75 females and 10 males were selected with typical characteristics of the breed, brought to the University of Nyala experimental farm. In the second phase basic information from tribal breeders and their sheep flocks were collected. For each phase flock statistics were recorded and then some reproductive and productive traits were estimated. Season and age effect on mortality of sheep flock was estimated. Likewise feed lot experiment was done to examine the possibility of sheep for improvement of meat production. Body length, heart girth, height at withers and chest depth were measured for lambs at birth to one year age and similar measurements were taken for adult flocks.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , K.H. Wang , B.C. Li , D.M. Mekki , J.T. Shu and H.P. Ju
  Serum cholesterol, lipoprotein concentration and carcass characteristics data were taken in 30 fat and 40 lean chickens. Breeds were differed significantly (p<0.001) in carcass traits and non significantly (p>0.05) in carcass portions. Color density and pH were also differed significantly (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force value were non significant (p>0.05). Both breeds showed positive correlation for carcass traits, while abdominal fat was negatively related with breast muscle in lean breed. Significant difference (p<0.05) were observed in cholesterol and LDL and non significant (p>0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL and HDL level. Cholesterol and triglyceride were respectively related with LDL and VLDL. HDL was observed negatively related with triglyceride and cholesterol. Sex was effect significantly (p<0.05) in triglycerides and VLDL level and non significantly (p>0.05) in cholesterol, HDL and LDL level in fat breed. However, lean breed observed non significant difference (p>0.05) for lipoprotein concentrations. Correlation of lipoprotein concentrations and carcass trait were determined. In both breeds lipoprotein concentrations were negatively related with carcass traits. LDL was positively related with breast muscle and abdominal fat weight and triglyceride with live weight in fat breed. In lean breed cholesterol and LDL were presented positive correlation with all carcass traits.
  H.H. Musa , J.H. Cheng , X.S. Wu , H.P. Ju , D.M. Mekki and G.H. Chen
  Present study was focus to compare LDL receptor mRNA expression, total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotien levels and abdominal fat weight in genetically fat and lean chickens. Genetically lean (Rugao) and fat (Anka) chickens were reared in the same environmental condition, at 12 weeks of age samples of liver tissue were collected and abdominal fat weight was determined. Similarly, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein were assayed using a commercial enzymatic kit, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were estimated using the Friedewald equation. Total RNA from liver tissues were isolated using the standard Trizol methods and then total RNA was reverse transcribed by moloney murine Leukemia virus. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was developed to quantify the levels of LDL receptor mRNA expression. The level of LDL receptor expression was significantly (p< 0.05) difference between lean and fat chicken. In addition, lean and fat chickens were significantly differed on triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein and abdominal fat weight. The expression of LDL receptor mRNA in liver of fat chicken was negatively correlated with abdominal fat weight. However, in lean chicken was negatively correlated with total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein concentration, abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat weight. In addition, within two breeds LDL receptor mRNA expression in liver was negatively correlated with low density lipoprotein, abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat weight.
  B.C. Li , F.Yu , Q. Xu , L.G. Ni , G.H. Chen , X.M. Cheng , H.H. Musa and T.Z. Liu
  Chicken embryos from stage 15 to stage 45 were studied by means of serial section and light microscopy in order to investigate the relationship between the spermatogonium and the testicular development in early chicken embryos. The results showed that the glycogen in the PGCs (primordial germ cells) cytoplasm reduced gradually at the stage 22-28 (3.5th-5th hatching day). On the stage 29 (6th hatching day), the gonad of the embryo appeared the feature of testis and the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm reduced further. On the stage 31 (7th hatching day), the differentiation of ovary or testis was obvious and the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm later disappeared. On the stage 34 (8th hatching day), the testicular cord had began to differentiate. The each cord had been solid tubule with the spermatogonium. On the stage 35-37 (9th-11th hatching day), the number of testicular cord had been increased following embryonic development. The spermatogoniums were monolayer located in cord. At this stage, fewer sustentacular cells had been differentiated, while difficult to distinguish. On the stage 38-40 (12th-14th hatching day), the seminiferous tubules had been formed typically, the number of spermatogonium increased as well as sustentacular cells and the interstitial cells in seminiferous distributed in groups. On the stage 40-45 (16th-19th hatching day), the testis on the right was a little bigger than that of the left, the number of spermatogonium increased obviously and appeared like clusters of grape in the middle of seminiferous. Lumina in seminiferous tubule had formed and spermatogonium aligned with different layers.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , J.H. Cheng , D.M. Mekki , S.H.Xu and J. Huang
  Lipogenesis plays a role in the maintenances of body composition in the growing animals. Lipogensis was regulated in the liver and adipose tissue by the composition of macronutrients in diet. High carbohydrates and little fat was elevated lipogenesis than rich fat and low carbohydrates. Serum samples were preferred because of cholesterol and triglyceride concentration is about 3-5% higher in serum than in EDTA plasma, although no significant serum plasma difference was observed for HDL. There are a variety of methods to measure the lipoprotein classes. All require separation of the classes before they can be measured and recently analysis was performed usingenzymatic kits. Hormonal regulation of lipogenesis has been investigated by measuring hormone levels in the blood as a function of dietary state and by ablating specific endocrine glands in the intact animals, following replacement therapy with specific hormone. Hormone identified in experiments with intact animals was then tested in cell culture systems. Similarly the effect of nutrition on lipoprotein metabolism was reviewed. In the species point of view, the turkey in contrast to chicken seems to be a bird in which muscle growth is more important than adipose tissue growth. This difference in rate of fat deposition in extra-hepatic tissue is due to inherited differences. On the other hands, atherosclerotic plaques were found more severe in the quail selected for high cholesterol than in that selected for low cholesterol.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , A.H. Suleiman and D.M. Mekki
  The genetically fat Anka and lean Rugao chicken breeds were used for this study, both are reared in the same environment and management system. Body weight and abdominal fat weight were determined at 12 weeks of age. A polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism technique was applied to detect mutation in intron 8 of lipoprotein lipase gene. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test shows that allele frequency was significantly (p<0.01) different in Rugao population in locus LPL10 and non significantly different in Anka population. In addition chi-square test shows that populations were significantly (p<0.01) differed from each other. Body weight in fat breed was significantly (p<0.05) different between LPL genotypes in LPL9 and LPL10 loci. However, the abdominal fat was significantly (p<0.05) different in LPL10 locus. In addition lean breed shows non significant difference on body weight and fat weight. Genotype effect within two breeds showed that body weight and fat weight in LPL9 and LPL10 loci were significantly (p<0.05) higher in heterozygous AC compared with homozygous AA.
  Musa H.H. , G.H. Chen , W.B. Bao , X.S. Wu and J.H. Cheng
  Meat quality such as tenderness, color Density (OD), pH and Water Holding Capacity (WHC) were estimated from breast muscle of genetically fat and lean chickens at 12 week of age. Mutation in lipoprotein lipase and apoVLDL-II genes was detected by PCR-SSCP techniques. Agreement of the genotype frequencies with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations was tested using a chi-square goodness of -fit test. Lipoprotein lipase gene frequency was significantly different (p<0.01) in Rugao population, whereas in apoVLDL-II gene there are no significantly different between populations. The populations were differed significantly (p<0.01) within two genes. Lipoprotein lipase genotype was significantly (p<0.05) effect water holding capacity and meat tenderness. However, apoVLDL-II genotype was non significantly affected meat quality traits. The results also indicated that the interaction of Lipoprotein lipase and apoVLDL-II genotype was significantly (p<0.01) effected color density, pH and meat tenderness, whereas it was non significantly effects water holding capacity of breast muscle.
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