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Articles by G. Baba
Total Records ( 2 ) for G. Baba
  K.E. Koledzi , G. Baba , G. Tchangbedji , K. Agbeko , G. Matejka , G. Feuillade and J. Bowen
  This study concerns waste processing by composting in Lomé (Togo). It presents the composition of this waste, the treatment by composting of this waste recovered in the centers of transit and collected within individual households, an evaluation of its use as a fertilizer and finally a market research to determine its economic value. The composition of the Municipal Solid Waste showed that even though mineral components like sand and gravel represent the most important part of the waste arriving at the final dump location, organic material makes up a large part of households wastes. In order to determine the optimal conditions for composting biodegradable materials and for the overall process, a study was launched at a transfer site within a district of Lomé. Four types of compost were investigated, two with organics collected directly in households and two with raw waste stored at transfer sites that had been collected by a non-governmental organization in charge of primary collection. Amendment of the compost with natural fertilizer, natural phosphate and chicken manure was also tested. It was found that the quality of the types of compost was quite similar except for the one in which natural phosphate and manure had been added. Studies on the toxicity of the types of compost on their agricultural effectiveness and their economic value were also carried out. The market research demonstrated that the production costs of the compost were low enough to make it an attractive and potentially profitable alternative to existing fertilizers such as manure.
  E.K. Koledzi , K.N. Segbeaya , M. Tcha-Thom , G. Baba , G. Matejka and G. Tchangbedji
  Background and Objective: Metals may constitute problems in waste management because of their multiple sources and potentially high toxicity of some constituents. Processes of composting do not always guarantee acceptable quality of the compost in terms of hazardous metals. The aim of this study is to assess the balance of some heavy metals during the composting of different categories of urban waste. Methodology: Sorting and composting were used to separate the waste into different categories. Leaching test with EDTA solution were used to extract and study the speciation of Pb. The AFNOR recommendation were applied for determining the amount the heavy metals meet in Togo’s waste and during composting. Results: The results showed that, the fraction of the super fines for example with a particle size of less than 10 mm, contributes 30-56% of the total and average contents of metals in compost. Sorting of waste into various fractions such as plastics, hazardous materials, glass, miscellaneous combustible material, metals and super fines lowers the metal contents in finished compost by about 80%. The remaining 20% can be washed during the fermentation of windrows or still better can be reduced by chemical complex formation in the compost as shown by the leaching adequate test. The average content of metals is classified as followed: Cd<Ni<Cu<Zn<Pb. Only the Pb content exceeds the level of the French standard (AFNOR). The higher the rate of organic matter is the lower rate of extraction. Conclusion: Thus, contamination can largely be avoided by separating the organic waste from other residues prior to composting. This, will provide the necessary arguments to convince the populations to subscribe to programs of management of specific waste as for example the elimination of super fines in the waste in the case of Lome.
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