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Articles by G. H. Kramer
Total Records ( 4 ) for G. H. Kramer
  G. H. Kramer

This paper describes the design and construction of a new performance testing programme that was implemented in Canada in 2008. The Canadian Regulator (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission) had determined that their licensees, in addition to participating in the existing in vivo and in vitro performance tests, needed to demonstrate their ability in interpreting bioassay results to obtain intakes and resulting doses. The new programme is administered by the Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC). Currently, the NCRC carries out the performance testing for the in vitro and in vivo. At the time of writing, the first round has been completed and the results for 3H and natU exposures were very consistent, while the committed effective dose from 137Cs intake varied by a factor of two.

  C Li , B. B Sadi , G Moodie , J. N Daka , E. P. C Lai and G. H. Kramer

Rapid bioassay is very important for immediate and near-term consequence management, which includes identifying contaminated individuals and providing necessary medical intervention during a radiological or nuclear emergency. This paper reports the application of a newly developed bioassay technique for 90Sr in urine on a field deployable instrument, the Triathler®. Performance of this field technique for sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability is evaluated against bioassay criteria (ANSI N13.30). This field technique offers the following analytical merits: (1) minimum detectable activity of 121 Bq l–1 when 20 ml of urine is used; (2) relative bias of 11.1 % and relative precision of 3.2 % at the level of 45 Bq per 20 ml of urine and (3) sample turnaround time of less than 1 h. The technique meets the requirements for emergency bioassay when a committed effective dose of 0.5 Sv is used as the action dose threshold for medical intervention. Sample throughput can be significantly improved if this technique is automated.

  R. J Cornett and G. H. Kramer

The approach that Health Canada uses to manage risks to individuals and to populations who might be exposed to ionising radiation is based upon the risk management paradigm. The paradigm differs little between an emergency and a non-emergency situations. In both events, technical experts assess the risk by determining the exposure to the source of radiation. They usually calculate the radiation dose and then assess the potential for any health effects. The initial technical assessments often use scoping calculations. The calculations for children recognise that they are smaller and have different metabolic rates and different behaviour from adults. However, most rigorous quantitative models for dosimetry do not differentiate between children and adults. The risk assessments that were conducted to evaluate the contamination of Canadians who were in London during the Litvenenko poisoning are a good example to illustrate this general approach. The scoping risk assessment concluded that the risks to children and adults were low. No Canadian children were exposed to polonium during this event and, to date, there have been no radiation emergencies in Canada where children have been exposed to a significant source of radiation. Therefore, the comparisons between theory and practice are very limited and conclusions are drawn from international experience and other incidents or sources of radiation exposure such as radon and medical exposures.

  G. H. Kramer

The National Internal Radiation Assessment Section, which operates the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring, has field deployable equipment for emergency response. A substantial part of this toolkit is a set of portal monitors that can be used to quickly screen people into ‘uncontaminated’ and ‘contaminated’. The former term refers to a person who has <60 kBq (empirical practical detection limit) of activation/fission products and the latter group is contaminated by that amount or more. Previous work has focused on how to process large numbers of people quickly and methodologies have been previously published; however, it was assumed that the group being monitored was composed of healthy adults. When applying these methods to children, a number of shortcomings have been identified.

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