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Articles by Fatimah Abu Bakar
Total Records ( 3 ) for Fatimah Abu Bakar
  Muhammad Zukhrufuz Zaman , A.S. Abdulamir , Fatimah Abu Bakar , Jinap Selamat and Jamilah Bakar
  Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish sauce fermentation might be useful to prevent amines accumulation. Concomitantly, a good and hygienic manufacturing procedure will enhance the safety of fish sauce.
  Rand R. Hafidh , A. S. Abdulamir , Law Se Vern and Fatimah Abu Bakar
  Problem statement: A number of studies have recently conducted to identify novel and potent antifungal components from natural products. One of the reason was to overcome the antifungal resistant developed against most of commercially available drugs. Studies confirmed that mung beans have increased phenolic compounds and enhanced defenses during germination. Approach: We hypothesized that antifungal activities might be found in sprouts of mung beans, or Vigna radiate (L.) R. Wilczek. The screening method was conducted using disc diffusion assay against 12 fungi. It was followed by the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration. Results: The screening results revealed a potential antifungal activity by mung bean sprout extract against 2 out of 12 fungi including remarkable antifungal activity against human fungal pathogens, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichoderma harzianum. The potential antifungal activity of mung bean sprout reflects effective quality/quantity of polyphenolic compounds present after bean germination. Conclusion/Recommendations: This unprecedented study showed that mung bean sprout extract is a potential source for novel antifungal compound (s) that is inexpensive and readily available at a large scale for pharmaceutical companies.
  Raftari Mohammad , Azizi Jalilian Farid , A.S. Abdulamir , Son Radu , Sekawi Zamberi and Fatimah Abu Bakar
  Problem statement: Decontaminating meat surfaces has been the big concern of meat industry. Thus, various intervention strategies have been studied to reduce the level of bacteria on animals’ carcass surfaces. Approach: Mixture of different concentrations 1, 1.5 and 2% of acetic, lactic, propionic and formic acids at 1:1 ratio were spray washed on inoculated meat to evaluate their efficacy in reducing numbers of Staphylococcus aureus on meat tissue at 4±1°C. The beef pieces were decontaminated with hot water and then inoculated with S. aureus which then were spray washed with treatments for 15 sec separately. Results: Spray wash combinations of acetic and formic, lactic and formic and propionic and formic acids reduced the number of S. aureus at a range of 1.18-1.43 log cfu mL-1 more than combinations of acetic and lactic, acetic and propionic and lactic and propionic acids on meat tissue. Increasing the concentration of used acids increased the lethality of treatments as lethal effect of 2% concentration >1.5% concentration >1% concentration. Conclusion: Lactic and formic acids Combination showed the strongest lethal effect on S. aureus among other treatments. Moreover, this study showed that the combination of lactic and formic acids treatment is a feasible, safe, and economical decontamination method which is highly recommended for use rather than other combinations or single organic acids.
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