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Articles by F.U.C. Mmereole
Total Records ( 7 ) for F.U.C. Mmereole
  F.U.C. Mmereole
  In a study to evaluate the effect of substituting groundnut cake (GNC) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on the heamatological and serological profiles of broiler chickens, one hundred and fifty day-old broilers (Anak 2000) were randomly assigned to five dietary groups. The replacement levels were 0% (RSM) and 100% GNC for diet group A, 25% RSM and 75% GNC for diet group B, 50% RSM and 50% GNC for diet C, 75% RSM and 25% GNC for diet D and 100 RSM and 0% GNC for diet E. The diets were formulated for starter and finisher phases, and were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. After eight weeks of rearing, blood samples collected from nine randomly selected birds per diet group were analyzed for red blood cell counts (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin count (HB), packed cell volume (PCV), coagulation time (CT), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as well as serum protein contents. From the results of these indices, the following parameters were estimated: the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concetration (MCHC). Results indicated that, with the exception of MCV, MCHC and coagulation time, all other haematological and serological parameters decreased with increasing levels of dietary RSM. Values obtained were, however, within safe margins. The results further indicated that birds fed diets with high RSM had superior MCV and MCHC compared to those on high GNC diets. It was concluded that improved processing of RSM to eliminate its anti-nutritional factors content may improve its feeding value, and make it a potentially useful feed ingredient in reducing feed costs in poultry in Nigeria without endangering the health of birds.
  Bishop O. Ovwigho , F.U.C. Mmereole , I. Udeh and P.O. Akporhuarho
  The study was an inter-disciplinary one designed to investigate the constraints relevant to different poultry production systems. The sample size was 241 poultry farmers made up of extensive (210), semi-intensive (5) and intensive (26). A four-point rating scale was used to measure the constraints. Mean, Analysis of variance and correlation matrix were used in data analysis. The constraints faced by the extensive poultry farmers were inability to diagnose sick birds (M = 3.45), lack of market for eggs (M = 2.52), egg cracking (M = 2.98), lack of finance (M = 3.44) and loss of birds/eggs to thieves, predators and hazards (M = 3.17). The constraints faced by semi-intensive poultry producers were inability to diagnose sick birds (M = 4.00), lack of feeds (M = 3.00), transportation difficulties(M = 2.80), loss of birds and eggs to predators, thieves and hazards(M = 2.60), lack of finance(M = 3.80) and egg cracking (M = 3.40). The constraints to intensive poultry producers were mortality of adult bids (M = 2.85), diseases out-break (M = 2.58), lack of feeds (M = 2.88), transportation difficulties (M = 3.23), lack of finance (M = 2.65.), feather pecking/cannibalism (M = 3.00) and difficulties in sourcing for day-old chicks (M = 2.65). Lack of finance was a common constraint in the three systems of poultry production. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the responses of the extensive, semi-intensive and intensive poultry farmers to the constraints facing poultry production in the study area. Adequate finance is needed to boost poultry production in the study area.
  F.U.C. Mmereole and I. Udeh
  In a 2x4 factorial arrangement, the effect of genotype, diet and their interaction on body weight and weight gain of the F1 crosses between the local chicken and Barred Plymouth Rock were investigated. Birds of each genotype were separated into two dietary groups at day old. One group was placed on layer type diets and other on broiler type diet. The body weights and weight gains of the two diet groups were monitored up to 12 weeks of age. The effect of genotype by diet interaction on body weight and weight gain was not significant (p>0.05) throughout the period. Birds on broiler diet regime were significantly (p<0.01) heavier at 8 and 12 weeks of age compared with those on layer type diets. The effect of genotype on bodyweight was significant throughout the 12 week period and significant in weight gain at the periods of 0-4 weeks and 4-8 weeks of age only. During these periods, the F1 reciprocal crossbred groups (G2 and G3) compared favourably with the exotic (G4) in weight gain indicating that the local chicken could be used in crosses with the exotic birds for the production of table birds, which are adapted to the local harsh environmental conditions and which are resistant to most of the endemic diseases.
  F.U.C. Mmereole
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Lemmon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) Leaf Meal (LGLM) on growth performances of broiler chickens and its ability to be utilized as a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. The experiment involved two hundred and seventy day-old Abor-acre broiler chickens randomly separated into 3 experimental diet groups, with each being replicated 3 times. Ninety day-old birds were randomly allocated to each group and thirty birds per replicate. The diet groups were: Diet 1 (D 1 = control = basal diet), Diet 2 (D 2 = basal diet +1% LGLM) and Diet 3 (D 3 = basal diet+1% Teramycin antibiotic growth promoter). The birds were brood-reared for six weeks. At day-old the birds were weighed to obtain the initial weight and subsequently weighed weekly to determine weekly body weights and weekly body weight gains. Other parameters taken weekly included feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality rates. All the parameters were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 2006. The results obtained indicate that the performances of the birds placed on control diet (D1) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in all parameters than those placed on D2 and D3. The results further indicated that, although the final body weight of the birds on D2 (1895.56 g) was quantitatively higher than that of the birds in D3 (1875.92 g), the difference was not significant (p>0.05). With respect to feed intake and feed conversion ratio, it was observed that there were no significant differences between the birds in D2 and D3. At the end of the experiment the cumulative mortality rate in D2 (3.67%) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) lower than the mortality rate for the birds in D3 (3.98%). Based on these results, it can be concluded that, considering the risk of drug resistance which the antibiotics tend to impose on broilers, Lemmon grass leaf meal can be considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics growth promoters.
  Bratte, L. , F.U.C. Mmereole , O.J. Akpodiete and S.I. Omeje
  In an investigation conducted to determine the nutrient composition of seeds of the African Pear (Dacryodes edulis G. Don, H.J.Lam) and their potential as a feed ingredient in non-ruminant nutrition, samples of sun-dried, ground seeds of the African pear (Dacryodes Edulis Seed Meal) (DESM) were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The gross energy and metabolizable energy contents of DESM (3820.74 kcal/kg and 3368.04 kcal/kg respectively) and its crude protein (6.98%), ether extracts (8.98%) crude fibre (7.42%) ash (3.36%) and nitrogen-free extracts (73.26%) indicate that DESM can be classified as an energy feed. The anti-nutrients present were tannins (6.37 x 10-4 mg/100g), phytates (0.49 mg/100 g) and oxalates (1.68 x 10-15 mg/100 g) while its amino acid profile revealed only trace amounts of the essential and non-essential amino acids and vitamins. DESM contained reasonable amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, sodium and iodine while its calcium, copper and selenium levels were low. It was concluded that DESM may act as a close substitute for maize, especially in poultry diets, on account of its similarity in soluble carbohydrate content to maize and its protein content. This is expected to reduce production costs to poultry farmers in Nigeria and make poultry products available to consumers at more affordable costs.
  F.U.C. Mmereole
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Aloe vera as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter on the performance and the haematological characteristics of the broiler chickens. The experiment involved one hundred and twenty day-old Abor-Acre broiler chicks which were distributed to three treatment groups. The treatment groups comprised the following: T1 = control (basal feed), T2 = basal feed + Aloe vera, T3 = basal feed + Teramycin soluble powder (antibiotic growth promoter). Fourty day-old chicks were assigned to each treatment group in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated four times with each replicate having ten birds. The experiment lasted 56 days (8 weeks) during which the following parameters were collected:- initial body weight at day old, weekly body weights and body weight gains. At the end of the experiment, 8 birds were randomly collected from each experimental group and bled to obtain blood samples to determine the blood characteristics of the birds. All the data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS (2002) package. Results obtained indicated that body weights and body weight gains were significantly (p>0.05) higher in the birds fed diets containing Aloe vera supplement (T2) than the birds fed control diet (T1) but there were no significant (p<0.05) differences T2 and T3. With respect to the results of the haematological analysis, it was observed that while the blood characteristics of the birds in T1 did not significantly (p>0.05) differ from those birds in T2, there were significant (p<0.05) differences between the birds in T2 and T3. Based on these results, it was concluded that while those birds in T2 compared very well with the birds placed on antibiotics growth promoter (T3) in respect of growth parameters, the birds on T2 (Aloe vera supplement) showed remarkable superiority in blood characteristics over the birds in T3 (antibiotics supplement). This is an indication that Aloe vera can be used to replace antibiotics growth promoters while avoiding the development of drug resistance associated with antibiotic growth promoters.
  F.U.C. Mmereole , J.O. Egoh and J.I. Obinne
  Growth performance and cost benefit implications of feeding weaner rabbits on concentrate diets supplemented with T. procumbens ad lib. was investigated in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment comprising four treatment groups. Thirty-six weaner rabbits were involved in the experiment. Nine rabbits randomly assigned to each of the four treatment groups consisting of the following: Diet 1 = 12% CP with Tridax, Diet 2 = 14% CP with Tridax, Diet 3 = 16% CP with Tridax and Diet 4 = 16% CP without Tridax as the control. The treatments were replicated thrice. The feeding trial lasted for fourty-two days during which data on body weight and weight gains, feed intake and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were collected. The data collected were subjected to cost/benefit evaluation and statistical analysis using S.A.S. (2002) software package. Dietary treatments produced significant (p<0.05) effects on feed consumption, body weights and weight gains, FCR, production costs and profit margins. Rabbits fed concentrate diets containing 14% CP+ Tridax supplement had the best feed conversion ratio, least production cost/per kg of body weight gain and highest profit margin than the other treatments. Based on the results, therefore, it is advisable to produce rabbits on diets formulated on 14% CP supplemented with Tridax ad lib if the producer’s objective is to maximize profit.
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