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Articles by F.C. Oad
Total Records ( 16 ) for F.C. Oad
  F.C. Oad , U.A. Buriro and S.K. Agha
  The field experiment was conducted at Students’ Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan to assess the maize growth and fodder yield under varying combinations of organic manure (Farm Yard Manure (FYM) at the rate of 1500, 3000 and 4500 kg ha-1) and inorganic fertilizers (0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1). The results revealed that all the maize plant parameters were significantly affected with the incorporation of FYM and nitrogen levels. Among the plant characters, tall plants, maximum stem girth, more green leaves and highest maize fodder yield were observed with the application of 120 kg N ha-1 with combination of 3000 FYM. It was concluded that the inorganic nitrogen application is the common practice of the farmers, but if, farmyard manure will be supplemented there may be significant increase in maize fodder yield.
  F.C. Oad , M.H. Siddiqui and U.A. Buriro
  The field experiment was conducted at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan during 2004-05. Weed densities tested were: weedy check (control), wheat + Natural weeds (weedy for full season), wheat + mixed weeds (Chenopodium album, Melilotus alba, Avena fatua, Phalaris minor) (2:1), wheat + Chenopodium album (2:1), wheat + Melilotus alba (2:1), wheat + Avena fatua (2:1) and wheat + Phalaris minor (2:1). Among the tested weed densities, Chenopodium album, Avena fatua, Phalaris minor, and Melilotous alba were found common and serious weeds in wheat crop and reduced the tillers production, height of plants, seed index, wheat biomass and grain yield. The highest effect of Chenopodium album was recorded which reduced the grain yield by 39.95%, followed by Avena fatua (36.48%), Phalaris minor (35.33%), natural weeds for full season (34.96%), mixed weeds (32.14%) and Melilotous alba (24.01%). It was concluded that weeds exhibit the economic yield losses to the wheat crop, which may range from 24-39.95% and these must be controlled during the full growing season of the crop for achieving satisfactory crop yields.
  M.H. Siddiqui , F.C. Oad and U.A. Buriro
  A field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different irrigation regimes on the growth and yield of various cotton cultivars at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. Three irrigation regimes viz. 3, 5 and 7 irrigations were examined against three cultivars i.e., TH-41/83, TH-224/87 and NIAB-78. The results revealed that most of the quantitative characters of cotton varieties viz. plant height, number of sympodial branches, number of bolls plant-1, seed cotton yield plant-1 and seed cotton yield ha-1 were affected significantly (p<0.01), while non-significant effects were recorded in case of monopodial branches, GOT % and staple length. In case of 7 irrigations, the average values were highest for plant height (105.56 cm), monopodial branches (1.67) plant-1, sympodial branches (21.22) plant-1, bolls (54.44) plant-1, staple length (28.21 mm), while in case of 5 irrigations highest values were recorded for GOT (35.07 %), seed cotton yield plant-1 (39.46 g) and seed cotton yield (3323.52 kg ha-1). In case of cotton cultivars, TH-41/83 and TH-224/87 produced plant height of 109.22 and 109.22 cm, monopodial branches 1.69 and 1.44 plant-1, sympodial branches 16.89 and 18.22 plant-1, number of bolls 43.00 and 46.78 plant-1, GOT 34.69 and 34.69 %, staple length 27.94 and 28.11 mm, seed cotton yield plant-1 35.89 and 37.00 g, seed cotton yield ha-1 of 2600.55 and 2597.37 kg, respectively. While comparing the growth and yield contributing characters of above two cultivars with commercial cultivar NIAB-78, it produced plant height of 71.28 cm, monopodial branches 1.67 plant-1, sympodial branches 16.78 plant-1, number of bolls 47.20 plant-1, GOT 35.64%, staple length 27.90 mm, seed cotton yield plant-1 39.60 g and seed cotton yield ha-1 of 2823.13 kg, respectively. It was observed that cotton crop irrigated five times produced significantly economical overall performance as compared to 7 irrigations or 3 irrigations and though NIAB-78 was relatively a dwarf cultivar but it yielded significantly better than TH-41/83 and TH-224/87.
  A.M. Kumbhar , U.A. Buriro , M.B. Kumbhar , F.C. Oad , G.H. Jamro and Q.I. Chachar
  The series of field experiments were laid out during 1989-1990 and 1990-1991 at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. The crop sequences were: C1= wheat-soybean-wheat and C2= cotton-berseem-cotton. The fertilizer levels for cotton and wheat were: 50-50, 100-50 and 150-50 NP kg ha-1 and for legumes: 0-50, 25-50 and 50-50 NP kg ha-1 . The general observation in the experiments showed that increasing rate of N fertilizer application significantly enhanced grain yield in all sequences and years. In wheat-soybean-wheat sequence, the maximum wheat grain yield (3198.19 kg ha-1 ) was obtained when crop was fertilized with 150-50 kg NP ha-1 . The difference in grain yield between the two year was negligible and might be due to climatic conditions, however, maximum wheat grain yield (2645.63 kg ha-1 ) was obtained during 1989-90 and 2522.33 kg ha-1 grain yield was obtained during 1990-91 with the application of 150-50 kg NP ha-1 . In wheat-soybean-wheat sequence it was noted that wheat planted after soybean produced highest grain yield compared to wheat grown before soybean. In cotton-berseem-cotton sequence, the fertilizer dose of 150-50 kg NP ha-1 was found superior for maximum (2538.235 kg ha-1 ) seed cotton yield. The cotton planted in 1989-90 produced satisfactory seed cotton yield of 2237 kg ha-1 compared to 1990-91 planted cotton. Yearly observation for fertility regimes showed non-significant differences in the seed cotton yield values. Cotton planted after berseem exhibited higher (2185.42 kg ha-1) seed cotton yield compared to cotton planted before berseem (1836.33 kg ha-1 ). Berseem in the crop sequence with cotton recorded maximum green fodder yield of 16065.50 kg ha-1 in the plots fertilized with 50-50 kg NP ha-1 . Soybean used in crop sequence recorded maximum seed yield (1536 kg ha-1 ) under 50-50 kg NP ha-1 . In the two year study, it was concluded that increased crop productivity could be obtained by incorporation of leguminous crop at least once in a cropping sequence, because legume crops enrich soil fertility by fixing free environmental nitrogen in their root nodules, which in turn supply residual food nutrients in the succeeding crop. It is recommended that both wheat-soybean-wheat and cotton-berseem-cotton sequences with the incorporation of 150-50 NP kg ha-1 seems to be beneficial for achieving satisfactory target yields.
  M.H. Siddiqui , F.C. Oad and U.A. Buriro
  The field experiment was conducted to assess the performance of cotton varieties (CRIS-9, Karishma and Niab-78) under different plant spacing (15, 25 and 35 cm) at Student’s Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. It was noted that plant height, branches, open bolls plant-1, un-open bolls plant-1, lint and seed cotton yield were significantly affected by plant spacing and varieties, while their interactions were non significant for all the crop parameters. Cotton with 35 or 25 cm plant spacing recorded satisfactory lint weight and seed cotton yield, this increment in yield was associated with the increase in all growth and yield attributes. It was concluded that among the tested varieties, Niab-78 displayed maximum seed cotton yield (1700 kg ha-1) with 35 cm plant spacing.
  F.C. Oad , M.H. Siddiqui , U.A. Buriro and G.S. Solangi
  The field trial was conducted to assess weed management practices in cotton at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The herbicides applied were: T1 = Dual Gold 960 EC @ 2.0 L ha-1 pre-emergence, T2 = Dual Gold 960 EC @ 2.5 L ha-1 pre-emergence, T3 = Stomp 330 EC @ 2.5. L ha-1 pre-emergence, T4 = Stomp 330 EC @ 3.75 L ha-1 pre-emergence, T4 = Hand weeding and T5 = Control. Weed flora after 71 days of sowing competing with experimental cotton were: Cyperus rotundus (40.03%), Portulaca oleraceae (17.77%), Cynodon dactylon (13.70%), Echinochlor columum (10.00%), Convolvulus arvensis (9.25%), Digeria arvensis (3.70%), Euphorbia hirta (1.85%), Cressia cretica (1.85%) and Chorchorus depressus (1.85%). Highest weed density (54.25 m2) and weed intensity (25.00 m2) were recorded in weedy (control) fields, while highest weed control percentage (74.07%) was observed in hand weeded plots. Among herbicide treatments, Dual Gold 960 EC @ 2.5 L ha-1 pre-emergence produced maximum weed control (56.66 %), followed by Dual Gold 960 EC @ 2.0 L ha-1 pre-emergence (36.66 %). Stomp 330 EC @ 3.75 L ha-1 pre-emergence resulted 33.33% weed control, while Stomp 330 EC @ 2.5 L ha-1 pre-emergence recorded 29.62% weed control. Mean cotton plant height (103.65 cm), monopodial branches (3.06) and sympodial branches (39.00) plant-1, productive bolls (32.3) plant-1 and seed cotton yield (3942.50 kg ha-1) were maximum in hand weeded plots. Among, herbicidal treatments, Dual Gold 960 EC @ 2.5 L ha-1 pre-emergence produced best results with 93.05 cm cotton plant height, 2.66 monopodial branches, 29.0 sympodial branches and 23.20 productive bolls plant-1 and seed cotton yield of 2992.50 kg ha-1. It was observed that weed control practices in cotton were more effective in controlling weeds and producing higher seed cotton yield, when integrated efforts which include manual weeding as well as use of herbicides are employed simultaneously. However, Dual Gold 960 EC @ 2.5 L ha-1 pre-emergence may be preferred for chemical control of weeds in cotton.
  G.M. Mahar , F.C. Oad , U.A. Buriro and G.S. Solangi
  An experiment was laid out at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. Cotton variety Shahbaz-95 was treated with weed control treatments (Stomp-330 EC at 3 L ha-1, Stomp-330 EC at 4 L ha-1, Stomp-330 EC at 5 L ha-1, Fusilade at 3 L ha-1, Fusilade at 4 L ha-1, hand weeding and untreated check). Among the twelve weed species observed in the cotton field Trianthema portulacastrum (29.56%), Cyperus rotundus (17.24%), Portulaea oleracea (14.78%) and Digerea arvensis (10.47%) were the dominant weeds, while other weed species were in trace. Weed population recorded before herbicide application ranged between 63.71 - 65.13 m-2. Hand weeding and application of Stomp-330 EC at 5 L ha-1 reduced weed density significantly (92.40 and 91.59%) over other weed control measures, which in turn resulted taller plants (158.50 and 155.60 cm), exhibited more fruiting branches (14.09 and 13.50 plant-1), higher productive bolls (82.39 and 80.78 plant-1) and maximum seed cotton yield (2121.75 and 1957.50 kg ha-1).
  G.M. Mahar , U.A. Buriro , F.C. Oad and S.A. Shaikh
  A field trial was conducted to assess the effect of different sources of fertilizers on the growth, cane yield and sugar recovery of promising sugarcane variety Larkana-2001, at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan. The treatments included four fertilization sources (225-112-168 NPK kg ha-1, effective microorganism (EM) material, 25 t ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) and 25 t ha-1 press mud. The chemical source of fertilizer (NPK) at the rate of 225-112-168 kg ha-1 proved to be more effective to produce significantly greater plant height and thicker cane girth, more number of tillers, better brix, higher sugar recovery and maximum cane yield ha-1. The crop fertilized with EM prepared material and 25 t ha-1 press mud ranked 2nd and 3rd for all the crop parameters. However, application of 25 t ha-1 farm yard manure was not much effective fertilizer source for crop growth and quality characters.
  F.C. Oad , A. Naqi Shah , G.H. Jamro and H.A. Samo
  The field trial was conducted to determine the effect of NP doses on the overall performance of canola at Student’s Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. Two varieties (Shirallee and Wester) and six NP levels (Control, 56-28, 84-42, 112-56, 140-70 and 164-84 kg NP ha–1) were tested. The results revealed that branches, siliqua number, seeds in siliqua, seed index and seed yield were significantly affected by varieties and fertilizer doses and also all the traits increased significantly with the increasing NP levels. Variety Shirallee proved high yielding as compared to Wester. The application of 164-84 and 140-70 kg NP ha–1 produced maximum seed yield than rest of the NP doses.
  F.C. Oad , U.K. Gaimnani and H.A. Samo
  In order to determine the macro nutrients content (N.P.K) and some physico-chemical properties of the soils of different soil series around Tandojam, the soils samples were collected from six different soil series i.e Lalian, Miani, Pacca, Rustam, Shahdara and Sultanpur. The soils were generally heavy in texture, non-saline and low in organic matter. All the soil series were slightly to moderately alkaline in reaction (pH>7.0) and moderately calcarious in nature. The nitrogen contents ranged from 0.004-0.064%. The Available phosphorus contents ranged from 0.75-7.5 mg kg–1, whereas, exchangeable potassium varied from 100-440 mg kg–1. The N, P, K and Organic matter content were higher in the upper soil profile and decreased as the soil profile depths increased linearly.
  F.C. Oad , A. Naqi Shah , G.H. Jamro and S.H. Ghaloo
  A field experiment was conducted to assess the growth and yield performance of mungbean (Vigna radiata) varieties under various phosphorus and potash levels at Student’s Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. Four mungbean varieties viz. AEM/25, AEM-6/20, NM-20/21 and AEM-10/2/87 were tested. Most of the agronomic traits of mungbean varieties were significantly influenced by phosphorus and potassium fertilizers except pod number, seed weight per plant and seed index were non-significant. However, 100-100 PK kg ha‾1 showed an increase in the yield of the crop. Thus, it is recommended that the mungbean crop should be fertilized with phosphorus and potassium at the level of 100-100 PK kg ha‾1 for achieving satisfactory seed yield.
  H. Soomro , A. Soomro , F.C. Oad , A.H. Ansari and N.L. Oad
  Study envisaged that early planted (May,16) rice taken greater days to heading (110.4 days), maturity (136.0 days) and plant height (102.25 cm). However, number of panicles/hill (19.75), grains/panicle (109), grain weight/hill (79.13 g), 1000 grain weight (36.10 g) and grain yield (5750 kg ha–1) were significantly greater in 1st June planted rice. Thus, it is recommended that transplanting during the first week of June is ideal for achieving maximum grain yield.
  F.C. Oad , S.A. Channa , N.L Oad , A. Soomro , Z.A. Abro and A.W. Gandahi
  Four various water qualities Q1(EC =1.0 dS/m), Q2(EC = 1.5 dS/m), Q3(EC = 2.0 dS/m) and fresh canal water Q4(EC = 0.4 dS/m) were used to evaluate their effects over wheat growth and yield parameters. The results showed that, irrigation with canal water Q4 resulted significantly higher grain yield (4733.3 kg ha–1) followed by Q1 (3399.9 kg ha–1). However, the lowest growth rate and yield was observed in the experimental units receiving water quality Q2 (2116.6 kg ha–1) followed by Q3 (1333.3 kg ha–1). Growth and yield contributing parameters i.e. plants per plot, plant height, spike length, seed index and grain yield found to be superior in the continuos use of canal water, followed by plots where large proportion of canal water was applied in conjugation with tubewell saline water i.e.Q1(76%:24%), Q2(57%:43%), Q3(38%:62%). Thus, it is recommended that during shortage of canal water the canal and saline water could be used successfully in the proportion of 76% : 24% and 57% : 43% respectively for maximum wheat yield.
  F.C. Oad , A. Soomro , N.L. Oad , Z.A. Abro , M.A. Issani and A.W. Gandahi
  The textural class of soil was identified as clay loam and silty clay at 15-90 cm and 0-30 cm soil depths respectively. The chemical analysis of the soil showed ECe=4.43 dS/m, pH=8.20, SAR=8.33 and ESP=9.93. The planting of sunflower H0-1 was done on V-shaped furrows and flat beds; tested under varying moisture depletions. The maximum and satisfactory seed yield (2560 kg ha–1) was observed in the V-shaped furrows irrigated at 50% soil moisture depletion (SMD) followed by 70% SMD. However, excess water at the level of 30% SMD and stress conditions (90% SMD) exhibited very low yields. Water use efficiency (85.41 kg ha–1 cm–1) was also high in V-shaped furrow beds irrigated at 50% SMD. Thus, for saline soils it is recommended that sunflower must be planted on furrows and water should be applied at the rate of 50% soil moisture depletion level (SMD) for maximum water use efficiency and satisfactory sunflower seed yields.
  I.A. Khuhro , G.S. Solangi , S.N. Khuhro , R.D. Khuhro and F.C. Oad
  The experiment on effect of different diets on various biological parameters conducted at Karachi Sindh, Pakistan revealed that the German cockroach, B. germanica was reared at constant temperature of 31±2°C under laboratory conditions with supply of three diets and water. The different diets i.e., poultry feed, sugar+wheat flour and rusk affected different biological parameters of B. germanica such as, mean incubation period, hatching percent of eggs, nymphal developmental period and adult longevity. B. germanica fed on poultry diet showed maximum hatching (94.65%) followed by sugar+wheat flour (88.54%) and rusk diet (87.04%). Similarly, maximum male and female longevity was recorded on poultry diet (144.4 to 153 days) followed by sugar+wheat flour (122 to 126.6 days) and rusk diet (118.6 to 126.4 days). Whereas, the minimum mean incubation period was recorded on poultry diet (14.62 days) followed by sugar+wheat flour (16.19 days) and rusk diet (17.52 days). The minimum mean nymphal development period was recorded on poultry diet (38.38 days) followed by sugar+wheat flour (39.18 days) and rusk fed cockroaches (43.28 days).
  A.H. Mirani , N. Akhtar , M.A. Brohe , S. Bughio and F.C. Oad
  Post mortem examinations of 500 buffaloes were conducted at the slaughter house of Larkana. Out of 500 buffalos 122 (24.4%) were found to be infected with hydatidosis. The organ involvement was as 24.4% in liver, 15.4% in lungs and 13.0% mixed infection (liver and lungs simultaneously). The infection intensity was also recorded as 57.3% livers had slight, 30.3% had moderate and 12.2% had severe infections. In case of lungs 50.6% had slight, 36.3% had moderate and 12.9% had severe infections. The overall investigation showed occurrence of slight infection at the slaughter house of Larkana. The infection occurs through the dogs. Therefore it is suggested that the dogs should not be allowed in the slaughter houses and the cyst infected organs should not be offered to the dogs.
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