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Articles by F. Abood
Total Records ( 6 ) for F. Abood
  K. Izran , A. Zaidon , A.M.A. Rashid , F. Abood , M.J. Saad , Mohd. Z. Thirmizir , Khairul Masseat and S. Rahim
  The fire propagation and strength performance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) core particle board treated with three different commercialized fire retardants were studied using ten percent concentration of fire retardants. The fire propagation test was evaluated using performance index (I), which indicates the heat release of the tested particle boards. Physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption, thickness swelling, Modulus of Rupture (MOR), Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Internal Bond (IB) of the treated and untreated boards were also studied. The study showed that diammonium phosphate (DAP) was excellent in reducing the heat release of the boards followed by monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and BP® [mixture of 27-33% boric acid, 67-73% guanylurea phosphate and 0.0-4.2% phosphoric acid]. DAP and MAP were able to delay the maximum early heat release of the boards by about 15 to 16 min and 18 to 20 min, respectively compared to BP® which was only able to delay the maximum early heat release by about 10 to 15 min after ignition. The heat release of the DAP and MAP-treated particle boards started 5 min after ignition, but the heat release of the BP®-treated boards started from the beginning of the test. Boards treated with DAP were found comply with the standard ratings for thickness swelling and water absorption test. MAP-treated boards were found comply with the standard rating for MOR and were found to be the best compared to the other treated boards for MOE and IB. However, treated boards complied with the standard ratings of MOE and IB.
  A. Zaidon , A.M. Norhairul Nizam , M.Y. Mohd Nor , F. Abood , M.T. Paridah , M.Y. Nor Yuziah and H. Jalaluddin
  The increasing use of low formaldehyde emission adhesives such as Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF) for bonding particleboard and other wood composites has led researchers to find ways to improve the durability of these products against biodeterioration agents. A study on the treatment of particleboard through soaking of particles with 2% boric acid and 0.2% deltamethrin solutions was conducted. Particleboards were produced utilizing treated particles of rubberwood (clone RRIM 2002), Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) and rubberwood-EFB blend (70:30). A low formaldehyde emission MUF resin (E1-grade) was used as a binder. The boards were evaluated for resistance against termite and fungal attack, static bending, internal bonding and dimensional stability. The properties were compared with those of untreated boards. The results of this study showed that the resistance of E1 grade MUF-bonded rubberwood and EFB particleboards against white rot fungus (Pycnoporous sanguiness) and termite (Coptotermes curvignathus) can be enhanced through the proposed treatment method. The particleboards made from both rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend require longer pressing time (> 6 min). Boric acid offered better protection against white rot wheras deltamethrin was more effective against termite. The bonding quality of both treated rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend boards was inferior compared to that of untreated board. Nonetheless, all treated EFB particleboards have higher IB. The strength and stiffness properties of rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend particleboards for both dry and wet conditions were markedly reduced by the treatments. The treatments increased the dry MOR and MOE values of EFB boards but lowered the wet MOR and MOE values. The study also indicated that the presence of preservatives had markedly decreased the stability of rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend particleboards.
  A. Roziela Hanim , A. Zaidon , F. Abood and U.M.K. Anwar
  This study were investigate the adhesion and bonding characteristics of bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) strips and laminates treated with permethrin-based preservative (Light Organic Solvent-Based (LOSP) and Water-Based (WBP)) formulations, Tributyl Tin Oxide (TBTO) and borax. The bomboo culm were cut into strips and treated with those selected chemicals. The bamboo strips were then glued edge to edge to form a bamboo veneers before fabrication of the three ply perpendicular bamboo laminates. In this research the properties studied include wettability, buffering capacity, shear strength and wood failure. Untreated strips and bamboo strips which were boiled in water (100°C) were also tested for comparison purposes. Those strips treated with LOSP had higher contact angle (3°-9°) which reflects that the surface of the treated strips is less readily wetted. Whereas, borax-treated strips had the highest wetting rate where the value is 1°. In buffering capacity study shows that treated bamboo was more stable towards alkali. This is suggested that a buffering agent (Calcium carbonate) is required in the adhesive formulation to ensure sufficient curing of the resin. Preservative treatments on bamboo strips significantly affect shear strength and wood failure of the laminates. Shear and wood failure of the laminated bamboo were significantly reduced especially in the wet condition where, the range is 0 N mm-2 (WBP treated) to 0.65 N mm-2 (boiled-treated) when compared to untreated bamboo laminates (0.79 N mm-2). While, in dry condition test, the glue bond strength of were range from 0.64 N mm-2 (WBP-treated) to 2.04 N mm-2 (borax-treated). All chemicals and non-chemical treatment generally affects the glue strength of the bamboo laminates especially in wet condition test. In dry condition test there are slightly reductions in glue bond strength but the quality still meets the requirement in the British Standard Part 8: Specification for Bond Performance of Veneer Plywood.
  F. Abood , G.A. Bajwa and Y.B. Ibrahim
  The tiger moth, Atteva sciodoxa is a serious pest of tongkat Ali, Eurycoma longifolia. The morphology, development times and fecundity aspects were studied at 27± 2°C, 80± 5% relative humidity and 12 h photoperiod. The eggs were yellow and ovoid in shape with a mean length and width of 1.19± 0.02 and 0.86± 0.02 mm, respectively. Width measurements of larval head capsules showed that A. sciodoxa undergoes five larval instar stages. The mean head capsule widths of the first to fifth instar larvae were 0.55± 0.01, 0.89± 0.01, 1.23± 0.02, 1.52± 0.01 and 2.11± 0.02 mm, while the body lengths were 4.71± 0.1, 8.63± 0.1, 12.87± 0.1, 16.29± 0.1 and 21.74± 0.2 mm, respectively. The mean male and female pupal body lengths were 10.36± 0.1 and 11.26± 0.2 mm, respectively. The mean male and female wing span were 21.63± 0.2 and 24.28± 0.2 mm, respectively. The mean pre-oviposition and oviposition periods were 6.2± 0.23 and 8.5± 0.28 days, respectively. A single female laid on average 106.1± 4.85 eggs with maximum production between days 8-15 of adult emergence. The maximum number of eggs laid per female per day was 20.1± 0.5. The mean hatching time was 5.7± 0.1 days with a mean hatchability of 81.1± 0.6%. The mean larval, pupal and adult periods were 20.7± 0.2, 6.2± 0.8 and 13.2± 0.5 days, respectively. The female pupal period and adult lifespan were significantly longer than the male. Atteva sciodoxa completed its life cycle in 46.28± 0.49 days.
  F. Abood , G.A. Bajwa , Y.B. Ibrahim and A.S. Sajap
  Seven isolates of Beauveria bassiana were screened for pathogenicity and infectivity at a concentration of 5x107 conidia mL-1 against Atteva sciodoxa at 27±2°C and 75±5% relative humidity with 12 h photoperiod. Based on screening results, isolates Bba-Pp and FS-11 were further bioassayed at 1x106, 5x106 and 1x107 conidia mL-1. All the isolates were found to be pathogenic. However, the infectivity varied significantly among the isolates. The earliest mortality was recorded three days after inoculation. The most virulent isolate, Bba-Pp, caused 100% mortality with a median infective time (ET50) of 3.6 days on day seven following inoculation while FS-11 caused 83.3% mortality with an ET50 value of 4.1 days. Bba-Sl3 was the least infective isolate with 24.9% mortality and 15.3 days of median effective time. Mycelia appeared on 24 to 48 h old cadavers. The highest level of sporulation on two-week old cadavers was 150.6x105 Bba-Pp conidia mg-1 cadaver while the lowest was 12.23x105 Bba-Sl3 conidia. The median effective concentration (EC50) of Bba-Pp was 9.89x105 conidia mL-1 while that of FS-11 was 3.85x106 conidia mL-1. The ET50 values for 1x106 and 1x107 conidia mL-1 of Bba-Pp ranged between 7.0 and 4.4 days, respectively, while that of FS-11 were 10.3 and 5.8 days. A strong negative correlation was found between inoculum concentrations and food consumption (R2 = -0.99). The infection by Bba-Pp and FS-11 resulted in 55.8 to 72.5% reduction in food consumption by A. sciodoxa compared to the controls.
  Y.L. Cheong , A.S. Sajap , M.N. Hafidzi , D. Omar and F. Abood
  A field study on population of bagworms was carried out in oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, plantation at Hutan Melintang, Perak, Malaysia from October 2005 to April 2006. Sampling was conducted at 14 days interval. The result suggests bagworm infestation was not correlated with amount and distribution of rainfall as being claimed by many planters. The result also shows that Pteroma pendula (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was the most dominant bagworm species among all of the bagworms recorded. Natural enemies, predators, parasitoids and some entomopathogenic fungi, contributed to mortality of the bagworms. Larvae of Callimerus arcufur (Coleoptera: Cleridae) were the most common predator attacking the bagworms. Cosmelestes picticeps (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was also observed attacking P. pendula. Among three species of parasitoids, Dolichodenidea metasae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was the most significant parasitoid of bagworm and this parasitoid commonly attacked by a hyperparasitoid, Pediobius imbrues (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Peacilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium ansopliae, were isolated from fungal-infected bagworms. Even though natural enemies were affecting the bagworm populations in the field and their resultant impact in controlling the bagworm populations in the field was still far from desirable.
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