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Articles by F. Yan
Total Records ( 8 ) for F. Yan
  F. Yan , C. A. Fritts , P. W. Waldroup , H. L. Stilborn , D. Rice , R. C. Crum , Jr. and V. Raboy
  Large White turkeys were fed diets containing either normal yellow dent corn (YDC) or a corn mutation containing low phytate phosphorus and high available phosphate corn (HAPC). Diets were considered nutritionally adequate in all respects with various degrees of reduction in available phosphorus content ( - 0.0, - 0.05, - 0.10 or - 0.15% of NRC (1994) recommendations for different feeding periods). These diets were fed with or without the addition of 1000 U/kg of phytase enzyme (Natuphos®, BASF), resulting in a total of 16 dietary treatments. Each treatment was assigned to three pens of 20 male turkeys from day-old to 20 wk of age. Body weight, feed consumption, and tibia ash were determined at 28 d intervals during the study. Male turkeys fed diets with HAPC did not differ significantly in BW or feed conversion (FC) from those fed diets with YDC, and had significantly higher tibia ash at 4, 8, and 12 wk of age. Addition of 1000 U/kg of phytase resulted in significantly higher BW at 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of age as compared to unsupplemented controls with no significant differences in FC. The addition of phytase significantly improved tibia ash at every age. Dietary phosphorus content had no effect on BW or FC at any age. Reduction of phosphorus generally did not impair tibia ash until reduction of 0.15% below NRC (1994) recommendations. Addition of phytase aided in overcoming the reduction in phosphorus content. The combination of HAPC, addition of phytase, and reduction in dietary phosphorus content should aid in reducing phosphorus excretion without impairing performance.
  K.Y. Zhang , F. Yan , C.A. Keen and P.W. Waldroup
  Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of two products containing essential oils in diets for broiler chickens. These products were RepaXol™, a mixture of essential oils (including oregano, cinnamon, thyme, and capsicum), and Avigro™, a mixture of essential oils along with organic acids (fumaric, citric, and malic). In the first experiment, conducted in litter-floor pens, eight replicate pens of 37 male and 37 female chicks of a commercial strain were fed a non-medicated corn-soybean diet, a diet containing antibiotics (bacitracin methylene disalicylate in starter and grower and virginamycin in finisher), a diet containing 0.5 kg/ton of Avigro™, and three additional treatments utilizing RepaXol™ at 100 g/ton continuously, 00 g/ton for 0-14 d, 75 g/ton for 14-35 d; 50 g/ton for 35 to 42 d, or 150 g/ton for 0-14 d, 100 g/ton for 14-35 d; 75 g/ton for 35 to 42d. All diets were in pelleted form with starter diets crumbled. Birds were grown to 42 d. In the second experiment, eight replicate pens of five male birds housed in battery brooders were fed the negative control diet with no additives, the negative control diet with 0.5 or 1.0 kg/ton of Avigro™, or diets with RepaXol™ at 100, 200, or 300 g/ton. Diets were fed as mash. Results from the first experiment indicated no positive improvements in body weight, feed consumption, mortality, or carcass yield from addition of Avigro™ or RepaXol™. Birds fed RepaXol™ at 150 g/ton had improved feed conversion at 14 d but not over the course of the experiment. Addition of the antibiotics to the diet also had no positive improvement in live performance; however birds fed the antibiotics had a higher dressing percentage. In the second experiment, birds fed 1.0 g/ton of Avigro™ or 300 g/ton of RepaXol™, higher than suggested by the supplier, had significantly lower feed intake and significantly better feed conversion than did birds fed the negative control diet. The results of this study show some beneficial effects from the use of products containing essential oils or a mixture of essential oils plus organic acids. It appears that the response may be dose-related and that levels higher than suggested by the manufacturer may be needed to elicit this response.
  P.W. Waldroup , C.A. Fritts , C.A. Keen and F. Yan
  One experiment in wire-floored batteries and two experiments in litter-floor pens were conducted to evaluate the effects of addition of alpha-galactosidase enzyme to typical corn-soybean meal based diets for broilers. In two experiments, Avizyme 1502 was fed in conjunction with the alpha-galactosidase enzyme. In formulating test diets, soybean meal was assigned an ME value beginning at 2440 ME kcal/kg and increased on the assumption that the addition of the enzyme would increase the ME of soybean meal by 10, 20, or 30%. In two experiments, the level of supplemental poultry oil remained constant with increases in apparent ME, while in the third the level of supplemental poultry oil was reduced as the assumed ME level of soybean meal was increased. Male chicks of a commercial broiler strain were used in all experiments. Overall, the results of the three experiments suggest little if any improvement in metabolizable energy of SBM as a result of the addition of an exogenous alpha-galactosidase enzyme, as indicated by evaluation of body weight gain, feed utilization, calorie conversion, or mortality. No improvements in the above parameters were noted when Avizyme 1502 was added to the diet, alone or in combination with the alpha-galactosidase enzyme. At the present time, it does not appear that diets based on corn and SBM of average quality would benefit from supplementation with these enzymes.
  F. Yan , J.H. Kersey , C.A. Fritts and P.W. Waldroup
  It has been frequently demonstrated that addition of phytase to corn-soybean meal diets will improve the utilization of the phytate-bound P for the broiler chicken. The effect of phytase on release of other nutrients such as Ca is less clear-cut. A study was conducted to examine the effects of phytase supplementation on diets with various dietary levels of Ca and nonphytate P (nPP). A diet was formulated that provided nutrients in excess of NRC (1994) recommendations with 1.0% Ca and 0.50% nPP. By varying the amounts of dicalcium phosphate, limestone, and sand in aliquots of a common basal diet, diets were prepared with 1) Low-P and Low-Ca, 2) Low-P and High-Ca, 3) High-P and Low-Ca, and 4) High-P and High-Ca. The diets were analyzed for Ca and P content and blended as needed to provide test diets in a factorial arrangement of three Ca levels (0.5, 0.7, and 0.9%) with eight levels of nPP (0.15 to 0.50% in increments of 0.05%). These 24 diets were divided and half supplemented with 1000 units/kg of phytase. Each treatment was fed to six pens of six male broilers from one to 21 d of age. Response of both body weight and tibia ash to phytase supplementation in broilers was significantly affected by dietary Ca levels as well as dietary nPP levels. Without phytase supplementation, both body weight and tibia ash were depressed at the lowest level of nPP as dietary Ca level increased. Adding phytase to these diets improved both body weight and tibia ash as a result of increased availability of P. At both 0.5% and 0.7% Ca, the dietary Ca level was a limiting factor in maximizing tibia ash regardless of P level or phytase supplementation. These data indicate that minimal Ca appeared to be released by phytase and that no reduction in Ca level of broiler should be implemented with phytase supplementation.
  J.M. Cornelison , F. Yan , S.E. Watkins , Lloyd Rigby , John B. Segal and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the use of hops (Humulus iupulus) in broiler diets as a potential replacement for antibiotics. Broiler diets were prepared based on nutrient specifications of top broiler companies and supplemented with either 50 g/ton penicillin or hops at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 lbs/ton of feed and compared to an unsupplemented control group. Each treatment was assigned to eight replicate groups of 45 male chicks of a commercial broiler strain. The diets were fed in pelleted form with starter diets fed as crumbles. Addition of 50 g/ton of penicillin resulted in significant improvements in body weight, feed conversion, and feed efficiency at all ages, as compared to those fed the negative control. The addition of hops at 0.5 lbs per ton also resulted in significant improvements in feed conversion and feed efficiency at all ages when compared to the negative control, and also significantly improved body weight at 14 d as compared to those fed the negative control diet. At 42 d, the body weight of chicks fed 0.5 lbs of hops per ton was greater (P = 0.09) than that of chicks fed the negative control. Higher levels of hops feeding resulted in some improvements as compared to those fed the negative control; including 14 d body weight for those fed 1.0 lb per ton, and improved 1 to 42 d feed conversion and feed efficiency for those fed 1.5 lbs per ton. Results of this study suggests that inclusion of hops into diets at the rate of 0.5 lbs per ton for broiler chickens may result in improved growth rate and feed utilization in the absence of growth promoting antibiotics.
  F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the ability of young broiler chicks (0-3 wk) to utilize the P provided by a high available phosphate corn (HAPC) in comparison with yellow dent corn (YDC) and to determine the extent to which microbial phytase supplementation and use of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) in the diet could reduce the requirements for P and subsequently reduce P excretion. Diets were prepared using either YDC or HAPC, which contained about the same total P but differed in phytate-bound P content. Within each corn type, diets were fortified with either vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 at the rate of 68.9 μg/kg diet. Treatment diets were prepared by varying the amount of dicalcium phosphate and ground limestone, and ranged from 0.09 to 0.50% nonphytate P (nPP) for YDC diets and 0.18 to 0.50% nPP for HAPC diets. Sublots of each diet were supplemented with 1000 units/kg phytase. Each diet was fed to four replicate pens of six male broilers of a commercial strain from 1 to 21 d of age. After factorial analysis, nonlinear regression analysis was conducted to estimate a nPP level sufficient for maximum body weight gain or tibia ash percentage for each corn type as influenced by phytase supplementation or use of 25-OH-D3. For broilers fed YDC diets, the estimations for maximum tibia ash were 0.40, 0.35, 0.32, and 0.27% nPP for diets supplemented with D3, D3 + phytase, 25-OH-D3, and 25-OH-D3 + phytase respectively. For broilers fed HAPC diets, substitution of D3 with 25-OH-D3 had no significant effect on tibia ash percentage and the inflection points for maximum tibia ash were 0.39 and 0.33% with and without phytase supplementation respectively. These nPP levels were sufficient to support body weight, feed conversion, or livability. The nPP in HAPC was equivalent in bioavailability to the P from dicalcium phosphate. In the absence of phytase, dry feces of broiler chicks fed YDC diets at the NRC (1994) recommended level of 0.45% nPP contained 1.19% P, whereas at the above inflection points, the fecal P content was 1.06, 1.11, 0.98, and 0.78% for chicks fed YDC diets supplemented with D3, D3 + plus phytase, 25-OH-D3, and 25-OH-D3 + phytase respectively. For chicks fed HAPC diets at the inflection points, the fecal P content was 0.84 and 0.68% with and without phytase supplementation respectively. Thus fecal P output can be reduced significantly while maintaining optimum live performance and bone mineralization by supplementation with microbial phytase, addition of 25-OH-D3, use of HAPC, reduction in dietary nPP level, or combinations of the above.
  F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  The study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability of MINTREX® Mn, an organic source of trace minerals, compared to reagent grade Mn sulfate and reagent grade Mn monoxide in diets for young broiler chicks. Nutritionally complete diets were formulated based on nutrient specifications of top broiler producers. Each of the Mn sources was added at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg. Diets were adjusted for the amount of 2-hydroxy-4 (methylthio) butanoic acid added from the MINTREX® Mn. All diets were fortified with 50 mg/kg Fe from ferrous sulfate, 100 mg/kg Zn from zinc sulfate, and 10 mg/kg Cu from copper sulfate. Diets were fed in mash form. Five male chicks (Cobb 500) were placed in each of 96 pens in battery brooders; six pens were assigned to each dietary treatment. Diets were fed from 1 to 20 d at which time body weight and feed consumption were determined and birds killed by CO2 inhalation. Tibias of all surviving birds, grouped by pen, were analyzed for bone ash and Mn content. There were no significant differences among treatments for body weight, feed conversion, feed intake, mortality, or tibia ash. Significant differences in tibia Mn content were observed among source and level of Mn. Slope-ratio analysis of the response to the various products indicated that birds fed MINTREX® Mn had 15.81% higher levels of tibia Mn than those fed the sulfate form and 53.89% higher levels of tibia Mn than those fed the oxide form, indicating greater biological availability of the Mn from the MINTREX® Mn than provided by commonly used inorganic forms of Mn.
  S. Cerrate , F. Yan , Z. Wang , C. Coto , P. Sacakli and P.W. Waldroup
  Glycerine from biodiesel production was used as a pure energy source in broiler diets formulated to meet typical commercial standards. In the first experiment, glycerine was added at 0, 5, and 10% of the diet while in the second experiment glycerine was added at 0, 2.5, and 5%. Glycerine was assigned a metabolizable energy value of 3527 ME kcal/kg in formulating the diets. In each experiment the various treatments were assigned to eight replicate pens of 60 male broilers each. In the first experiment, birds fed diets with 5% glycerine did not differ significantly in performance from birds fed the control diet with no glycerine. Birds fed diets with 10% glycerine consumed significantly less feed than did those fed diets with 0 or 5% glycerine and consequently had significantly reduced body weight. It is felt that this was due in large part to reduced flow rate in the feeders used in this study as previous researchers have shown acceptance of higher levels of glycerine. In the second study, birds fed diets with 2.5 or 5% glycerine had growth rate and feed conversion that did not differ significantly from that of birds fed the diet with no glycerine. Breast yield as a percent of the dressed carcass was significantly greater for birds fed diets with 2.5 or 5% glycerine as compared to those fed the diet with no glycerine. These data indicate that glycerine from biodiesel can be a useful energy source for use in broiler diets. Concerns remain regarding acceptable levels of residual methanol resulting from separation of the fatty acids in biodiesel production.
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