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Articles by F. R. Durrani
Total Records ( 7 ) for F. R. Durrani
  Farooq. M. , M. A. Mian , Zahoor-ul-Haq , F. R. Durrani and M. Syed
  A study was undertaken in Chakwal during 2000-2001 while collecting data from 109 flocks to predict standard limits for various cost components in commercial egg production enterprise. Net profit per bird was taken as response variable and the cost components one by one were standardized using quadratic functions. Maximum critical limit for total predicted cost of production per bird, cost of: feed, labor, day-old chick, building and equipment, immunization, medication, transportation, miscellaneous items, bedding and electricity was Rs. 343.41, Rs. 22.97, Rs. 21.63, Rs. 17.39, Rs. 9.08, Rs. 7.80, Rs. 3.32, Rs. 3.30, Rs. 2.05, Rs. 2.03, respectively. The critical maximum limits were the indicators suggesting that any increase beyond those limits would render the enterprise uneconomical. The information provided may serve a useful purpose for the commercial layer farms in improving net profit from commercial layers in Chakwal.
  Khurshid. A. , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , K. Sarbiland and N. Chand
  The present study was conducted on eggs of Japanese quail maintained in cages at the research unit, NWFP, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Five hundred eggs selected at random were broken to record data on egg weight (g), egg length (cm), egg width (cm), shell weight (g) and shell thickness (mm). Another 500 eggs were put in the incubator after discarding undesirable eggs and recording data on egg weight, egg length and egg width. Egg weight was better predictable from egg width and length. Following equations were developed to predict egg weight from egg length and width; (Equation 1) Ŷ= - 3.3133600 + 1.835144(X1) + 2.655127(X2), (Equation 2) Ŷ= 1.970096 + 2.252730(X3) and (Equation 3) Ŷ= - 1.0109318 + 3.616882(X4). Where; `Ŷ `was predicted egg weight, X1 and X3 the egg length and X2 and X4 the egg width for every equation separately. Following equations were developed for predicting eggshell weight from egg weight, length and width; (Equation 4) Ŷ=- 0.521102+0.310761(X5) +0.4074 (X6), (Equation 5) Ŷ=0.138189+0.062933(X7) +0.233078(X8) and (Equation 6) Ŷ=- 0.001150+0.071568(X9) +0.311496(X10). Where Ŷ was predicted eggshell weight, X5 and X8 were egg length, X6 and X10 are egg width and X7 and X9 were egg weight (g), respectively. Shell thickness was predictable with sufficient accuracy from egg weight, width and length and following equations were developed to predict it; (Equation 7) Ŷ= 0.154646 + 0.076448(X11) and (Equation 8) Ŷ= 0.154721 + 0.000694(X12) + 0.073939(X13). Where `Ŷ ` was predicted eggshell thickness, X11 and X13 the egg width and X12 the egg weight for each equation separately. Weight of egg albumin was predictable from the following equations; (Equation 9) Ŷ= - 0.685557 + 0.460613(X14) + 0.079842(X15) + 0.412241(X16), (Equation 10) Ŷ= - 0.553150 + 0.468198(X17) + 0.426649(X18), (Equation 11) Ŷ= 0.279557 + 0.468198(X19) and (Equation 12) Ŷ= - 2.128934 + 0.925133(X20) + 1.63522(X21). Where `Ŷ ` was the predicted weight of egg albumin, X14, X17 and X19 the egg weight, X15 and X20 the egg length in cm and X16, X18 and X21 the egg width in cm for each equation separately. Weight of egg yolk could be predicted from the following equations; (Equation 13) Ŷ= - 0.618041 + 0.339520(X22) + 0.156591(X23), (Equation 14) Ŷ= - 0.303204 + 0.355813(X24), (Equation 15) Ŷ= 0.003214 + 1.141682(X25) and (Equation 16) Ŷ= 0.050845 + 0.921437(X26). Where, Ŷ was predicted weight of egg yolk, X22 and X24 were the egg weight in grams, X23 and X25 the egg width in cm and X26 the egg length in cm for each equation separately. Weight of the newborn chick was better predictable from egg weight, width, length and egg shape index (equation 17). Ŷ = -5.558612 + 0.629504(X27) - 0.839306(X28) + 1.246874(X29) + 0.050482(X30) . Where; `Ŷ ` will be the predicted weight of the new born chick, `X27` the egg weight, `X28` the egg width, `X29` the egg length and `X30` the egg shape index. The equations developed for each trait are to be used in the order given to ensure better accuracy of the results.
  M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , N. Imran , Z. Durrani and N. Chand
  A systematic investigation was performed on the outbreaks of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) using data compiled during the years 1997 and 1998 from 50 broiler farms in Mirpur and Kotli districts. Average mortality due to IBD was 15.31±1.04% with a coefficient of variation of 48.04%. Farms located at various places and vitamin supplementation had no effect on mortality caused by IBD. Season, floor space/broiler, age of the bird, immunization schedule, interval between two batches, presence of coccidiosis in a flock and hygienic status of the farm had a significant effect (p<0.01) on prevalence of IBD. Higher losses (p<0.05) were found due to IBD in winter (19.84±2.10%) than those tabulated in spring season (9.00±2.74%). Losses were found to be higher (p<0.05) in over crowded houses (20.34±3.93%; <0.09m2/broiler) than in under (12.56±2.53%; >0.09m2/broiler) or optimally utilized housing (13.04±1.06%; 0.09m2/broiler). Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found in broilers at the age above 32 days (17.66±1.51%) than in broilers at 19-23 days of age (12.42±1.97%). Prevalence of IBD was higher (p<0.05) in those flocks immunized only once in their production life (23.03±1.27%) than in those produced under a standard immunization schedule (7.61±4.89%). Losses due to IBD were also higher when the duration between two batches was one week (22.28±10.28%) than at four week duration between two batches (12.80±2.78%). Insignificant differences were assessed in losses due to IBD when inter flock interval was either 2 or 3 week periods. Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found due to IBD in flocks experiencing coccidiosis problem (17.90±1.20%) than those having no coccidiosis problem before the onset of IBD (12.73±1.85%). Losses were less in flocks maintained under good hygienic conditions (6.03±1.33%) than those under poor hygienic conditions (21.63±2.19%). Mean economic losses due to IBD per broiler flock of 1734.50±119.91 and a flock of 1000 birds were Rs. 7846.87±1169.81/ and Rs. 4523.99±447.56/, respectively. Economic losses/year for the aforementioned flocks was Rs. 31701.38±2345.36/- and Rs. 18276.96±2388.91/-, respectively. Optimal utilization of floor space/broiler, protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions, following recommended immunization schedule, maintenance of good hygienic conditions at the farm and a flock interval of at least more than one week are suggested as important factors for reducing losses due to IBD in broilers in Mirpur and Kotli districts of Kashmir.
  Murad Ali , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , N. Chand , K. Sarbiland and A. Riaz
  The present study was conducted on broiler breeders maintained in 24 different farms located in Mansehra and Abbotabad to investigate egg production performance and develop standard limits for production traits of economic importance. Average number of day-old chicks received at a broiler breeder farm was 19076.29, out of which 16449.08 birds attained sexual maturity and were housed in laying houses. Total hens housed represented 14037.32 females and 1559.70 males (a male to female ratio of 1:9). Reserved male stock (852.06 birds) was 5.18% of the total population. Average mortality during 323.46 days of growth and production period was 13.77%, representing 2.97, 4.99 and 5.81% mortality during brooding, growing and laying periods, respectively. Average age at point-of-lay, age at peak-of-lay and egg laying period were 164.67, 232.83 and 155.46 days. Age at point-of-lay (r = 0.227) and age at peak-of-lay (r = 0.333) were found positively but non-significantly correlated with total mortality in a flock. On the other hand flock size was found negatively correlated with age at point (r = -0.052) and age at peak-of lay (r = -0.415; p<0.04). Egg laying period was found negatively but non-significantly correlated with flock size (r = -0.147) and positively correlated with total mortality in a flock (r = 0.255). Egg laying period was found positively and significantly (P<0.027) associated with percent lay (b = 5.770). Average peak percent lay and percent lay was 83.09 and 59.67%, respectively. Percent lay was found non-significantly and positively correlated with flock size (r=0.184) and mortality ( = 0.085). Similar findings were observed for peak percent lay. Percent lay was found positively and significantly (P<0.033) associated with peak percent lay (b = 0.625). Peak percent lay was found negatively associated with age at peak of lay (b = -0.324; P<0.001) and positively associated with age at point of lay (b = 0.891; P<0.001). Average hen-day and hen-housed egg production was 103.32 and 95.10 eggs, respectively. Hen-day (r = -0.067) and hen-housed egg production (r = -0.074) was found negatively and non-significantly correlated with flock size. Hen-day egg production was found positively associated with peak percent lay (b = 1.600; P<0.035) and egg laying period (b = 0.627; P<0.001). Percent lay, peak percent lay, egg laying period and hen-day and hen-housed egg production was lower than that reported in the literature. Standard limits for minimum number of hens to be housed, maximum level of mortality, maximum age at point of lay, maximum age at peak of lay, minimum peak percent lay, minimum percent lay, egg laying period in response to percent lay and egg laying period in response to hen-day production were 4172.21 birds, 13.11%, 164.36 days, 35.33 weeks, 79.99%, 67.64%, 28.06 weeks and 65.54 weeks, respectively. The standard limits mentioned for various traits shall be maintained in order to make broiler farming more productive.
  Zen-Ullah , U. R. Altaf , A. Ishtiaq and F. R. Durrani
  The main objective of the present study was to evaluated the effects of different levels of locally avaiable Driselase-1 (amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic enzymes mixture), when added in the starter rations of broiler chicks. The effectiveness of such enzymes was measured in terms of gain in body weight, dry matter intake (DMI) and feed efficiency. One hundred and ninty two day old chicks were randomly distributed into 4 main groups, A, B, C and D, where each main group was further divided into 4 sub groups contained 12 birds each. Four experimental diets viz, I, II, III and IV were randomly allotted to these groups. All the four diets were containing 1 kg (basal feed ingridients) added with 0, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg Driselase-1. Each ration was offered ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 21 days. The data were statistically analyzed using Completely Randomized Design. Enzuyme treatment highly (P<0.01) effected the gain in body weight and feed efficiency, but slightly (P<0.05) effected the DMI of the experimental birds. Ration IV resulted the highest improvement in the pre-mentioned parameters compared with Rations. I, II and III. it was concluded that enzyme addition successfully improved the over all performance of the experimental birds. Further research work is needed to use higher level of such enzymes mixture in broiler finisher ration. It is also suggested that the effect of Fdriselase-12 should be tested on commercial layer. Moreover, the economics of the experimental rations should be calculated.
  C. Naila , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , A. Asghar and Pervez
  Twenty female farmers in each of 20 different villages of district charsadda, NWFP were selected at random to investigate prevalence and economic ramification of Newcastle disease in Backyard chicken. Overall Morbidity and mortality was 31.0±1.84 and 26.98±1.14%, respectively causing 86.95±0.79% mortality among the sick birds. Morbidity (56.93±7.61) and mortality (98.66±7.03%) among the sick birds was higher (p<0.05) in White Leghorn (WLH) than in Fayumi (17.94±2.22 and 74.28±1.91), Rhode Island Red (RIR; 27.79±3.73 and 90.67±3.71) and Local chicken (20.82±1.34 and 84.24±0.89%, respectively). Overall mortality was also higher in WLH (49.23±6.92%) than in Fayumi (14.36±1.89%), RIR (24.10±3.36%) and Local (20.18±1.18%) morbidity (49.19±1.56%), mortality among the sick birds (99.89±0.93%) and overall mortality (44.88±1.45%) was higher (p<0.05) in those flock which were not vaccinated flocks than in flocks regularly vaccinated (12.84±1.01, 65.96±2.02% and 8.92±0.84%, respectively). Morbidity (46.82±2.35%) and mortality among the sick birds (98.58±0.27%) was higher (p<0.05) in chicks than in adult birds (17.63±1.23 and 76.06±1.80%) and pullets (28.92±2.49 and 85.79±0.87%, respectively). Overall mortality was also higher in chicks (40.71±1.52) than in adult birds (15.76±0.91%) and Pullets (24.39±1.07%). Higher morbidity and mortality (among the sick birds) was observed in winter season (72.08±0.84 and 98.82±0.82) than in Summer (29.45±0.78 and 90.93±0.89), Fall (14.63±0.68 and 82.78±1.03) and Spring season (8.28±0.72% and 74.08±1.2%, respectively). Overall mortality was also high in winter (68.7±0.79%) than in Summer (22.34±0.7%), Fall (11.26±0.8%) and Spring (5.65±0.93%). Although, not significant, morbidity and mortality (among the sick birds) was numerically high (32.16±2.01 and 96.43±2.68%) in chicken having no shelter facility than in those which had a night shelter facilities (30.03±1.95 and 77.51±1.79%, respectively). Per cent morbidity had a non-significant association (b=-0.6341±0.085) with per cent reduction in egg production. Per cent morbidity was found significantly (p<0.05) and negatively associated with per cent reduction in eggs of RIR (b=-0.2254±0.572) and local chicken (b=-0.14862±0.047). Per household annual reduction in eggs and economic ramification due to reduced egg production, and mortality were 401.06±1.14 eggs and Rs. 902.45±0.56, and Rs. 1343.84±2.8, respectively. Total per household per year economic ramification due to reduction in eggs and mortality resulting from Newcastle disease was Rs. 2246.29±1.19. Per household per cent reduction in egg production and economic ramification due to reduced egg production of Newcastle affected chicken was higher (p<0.05) in WLH (154.41±1.14 number and Rs. 347.42±5.34) than in RIR (114.89 number and Rs. 258.5±2.15), local (76.04±1.14 and Rs. 171.09±2.26) and Fayumi (55.75±0.45 and Rs. 125.44±3.88, respectively). Economic ramification as a result of mortality was also higher (p<0.05) in WLH (Rs. 457.32±5.91) than in RIR (Rs. 378.39±2.89), local (Rs. 311.62±2.13) and Fayumi (Rs. 196.72±4.33). Economic ramification due to mortality as a result of Newcastle disease was higher (p<0.05) in chick (Rs. 1522.49±1.14) than in pullets (Rs. 1325.21±1.01) and adult birds (Rs. 1183.25±1.26). Protection of chicken from extremes of weathers, provision of shelter and timely vaccination were recommended to avoid losses. In addition, rearing RIR, and Fayumi as backyard chicken along with local chicken (non-descript) would also be helpful in avoiding economic ramification in Charsadda.
  Farooq . M , F. R. Durrani , M. Aleem , N. Chand and A. K. Muqarrab
  Egg and shell weight, egg length and width, % hatchability, fertility, loss in egg contents during incubation and weight of newly hatched chicks were studied in 120 eggs (40 eggs each of Fayumi, Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Desi chicken). %hatchability on the basis of total eggs set and on the basis of fertility was higher in Fayumi (65.96±0.07 vs. 88.57±0.08%) than in Desi (60.00±0.18 vs. 61.76±0.08%) and RIR chicken (42.86±0.07% vs. 80.77±0.10%). Higher fertility was found in Desi (74.47±0.08%) than in Fayumi (64.71±0.23%) and RIR chicken (53.06±0.45%). Larger egg weight and chicken weight was found for RIR (53.94±0.69 vs. 35.32±0.86 g) than for Desi (45.88±0.67 vs. 33.84±0.83 g) and Fayumi chicken (44.84±0.54 vs. 30.74±0.72 g). Egg weight was found significantly and positively correlated (r=0.4962) with hatching chick weight. Percent loss in egg contents was higher in RIR (24.41±0.42%) than in eggs of Fayumi (22.11±0.36%) and Desi chicken (19.18±0.38%). Egg shell weight was larger in RIR (4.77±0.09 g) than in Fayumi (4.54±0.09 g) and Desi chicken (4.46±0.06 g). Shell was thicker in RIR (0.39±0.01 mm) and Fayumi (0.38±0.01 mm) than in Desi chicken (0.34±0.02 mm). Egg length (5.57±0.03 cm) and width (4.19±0.02 cm) were higher in RIR chicken than in Desi (5.26±0.03 vs. 3.96±0.02 cm) and Fayumi eggs (5.17±0.03 vs. 3.93±0.02 cm). Egg length to width ratio was around 1.33 and non-significant differences were found in all types of chicken. Egg length (r=0.446) and width (r=0.426) was found significantly correlated with hatching chick weight. Egg weight (r=0.184), shell weight (r=- 0.504), egg length (r=0.581) and width (r=0.78) were also found significantly correlated with hatching chick weight. On the other hand egg length (r=-0.187) and width (r=-0.181) were found negatively and significantly correlated with % hatchability. On overall basis Fayumi chicken performed better than RIR and Desi chicken.
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