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Articles by Eni Harmayani
Total Records ( 8 ) for Eni Harmayani
  Agus Wijanarka , Toto Sudargo , Eni Harmayani and Yustinus Marsono
  Background: Gayam (Inocarfus fagifer Forst.), a native plant of Indonesia has a good potential as a source of flour. Currently, gayam flour is made by conventional processing with poor quality. Objective: The study was to evaluate the effect of pre-gelatinization treatment on physicochemical and functional properties of gayam flour. Methodology: Pre-gelatinized gayam flour was prepared from unpeeled gayam seed by boiling at 100°C for 15, 30 or 45 min, followed by peeling, slicing, drying, grinding and sieving through a 60 mesh. Results: The pre-gelatinization treatment decreased the starch and amylose content, while moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates and dietary fiber content did not differ significantly. The longer pre-gelatinization time led to the higher of ΔE values and whiteness index, whereas pre-gelatinization for 45 min produced the highest ΔE values and whiteness index. Scanning electron microscopy showed the granules of the pre-gelatinized gayam flour were oval, rough surface, bigger and heterogenous size, while native flour was spherical, smooth surface, smaller and homogeneous size. The pre-gelatinization treatment increased water holding capacity and swelling power but decreased oil holding capacity and solubility. Pasting temperature and setback viscosity of pre-gelatinized gayam flour increased as the pre-gelatinization time increased but it had no effect on the peak, trough, breakdown and final viscosity. Conclusion: The significant differences in physicochemical and functional properties were observed among the pre-gelatinized gayam flours with respect to starch, amylose content, color, microstructure, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and pasting properties. The pre-gelatinization treatment of gayam seed increased the whiteness index, water holding capacity and swelling power.
  Nurliyani and Eni Harmayani
  Background and Objective: Spoilage by microorganism contamination often occurs during cheese processing and ripening, while syneresis often occurs during curd formation. Liquid smoke is often known as an antimicrobial, whereas, glucomannan has water binding capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of liquid smoke and porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) glucomannan addition in cheese processing on viability of lactic acid bacteria, physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of goat milk cheese ripened with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Materials and Methods: Goat milk for cheese making was divided into 4 groups: Control (without liquid smoke and glucomannan), milk added with liquid smoke, milk added with glucomannan and milk added with a combination of liquid smoke and glucomannan. These cheese were ripened for 30 days in a refrigerator. Results: Liquid smoke and glucomannan had no effect on total lactic acid bacteria (108-109 CFU g–1), acidity, pH, moisture, soluble protein, free fatty acid, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of goat milk cheese. However, the texture of cheese treated with liquid smoke and/or glucomannan was softer (p<0.05) than the control cheese. After ripening, the acidity, moisture, soluble protein, free fatty acid (FFA), total phenolic and texture of cheese were increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas, the pH, moisture content and antioxidant activity were decreased significantly (p<0.5). Conclusion:Liquid smoke and glucomannan addition had no negative effect on viability of lactic acid bacteria, chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity, but may soften the texture of ripened goat milk cheese. After ripening, the phenolic content increased, but the antioxidant activity decreased. The ripened goat milk cheese with L. rhamnosus added with porang glucomannan has potential as a synbiotic cheese.
  Astuti , Zaenal Bachrudin , Supadmo and Eni Harmayani
  This research was conducted to examine whether giving Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria in a force feeding way could reduce the level of cholesterol in broiler chicken blood. The source of Microbe used as the research materials was isolate BAL isolated from fish waste in the fish digestion organ. Fourty male broiler chickens strain Lohmann with 4 week ages produced by PT Multi Breeder Adirama was used in this research. They were divided into five different treatments in which each treatment consisted of 8 chickens taken randomly and raised for 42 days. Data collected was analyzed with variance analysis used one way full random design, then, the data analyzed by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Lactate Acid bacteria (BAL) used in this research were freeze drying Streptococcus thermopillus which were taken from Biochemistry Nutrition Laboratory of Faculty of Animal Breeding of Gajah Mada University. Treatment I was as a control (Without BAL). Treatment II used 106 CFU/mL BAL cell. Treatment III used 107 CFU/mL BAL cell. Treatment IV used 108 CFU/mL BAL cell. The result of the research showed that giving lactate acid bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilous, significantly reduced the cholesterol level in broiler chicken blood. The reduce of cholesterol level in the chicken blood seemed affected indirectly by the mechanism of gall saline de-conjugation.
  Nurliyani , Eni Harmayani and Sunarti
  The microbiological quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles were studied in kefir prepared from combination of goat and soy milk (100:0), (50:50) and (0:100). Total counts, total of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and total yeast of kefir were counted with Standard Plate Count (SPC). Fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), whereas amino acids composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that there were no significant difference in total counts, LAB and yeast of all kefir. The acidity of kefir made from soy milk only was lower (p<0.05) than kefir made from goat milk or combination of goat and soy milk, whereas there were no significant difference in pH. Caproic (C6:0), heptadecanoic (C17:0), behenic (C22:0) and pentadecanoic (C15:1) acid of kefir made from 50% goat milk and 50% soy milk mixture (50:50) were lower (p<0.05) than goat milk kefir (100:0), but the oleic acid (C18:1) of kefir made from combination of 50:50 was higher (p<0.05) than 100:0. The amino acids composition of kefir made from goat milk only (100:0) and combination 50:50 was not significantly different. Therefore, this study suggests that soy milk can substitute 50% of goat milk to produce kefir without changing the microbiological quality, acidity, pH value, amino acids profile and even increase the oleic acid.
  Nani Ratnaningsih , Suparmo , Eni Harmayani and Yustinus Marsono
  Background and Objective: Legumes were studied extensively in the past because of their protein contents but they have now become valuable for their low glycemic index (GI), which is attributed to high amylose and resistant starch contents. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of native starches from five varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivated in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Five varieties of cowpea (namely KT4, KT5, KT7, KT8 and KTL) were extracted their starches using wet milling method. The in vitro digestibility and eGI of cowpea starches were determined using method of Englyst and Goni. Results: Cowpea starches had low RDS content, from 4.09% (KT7) to 7.51% (KT4) but high SDS, from 19.66% (KT5) to 27.07% (KTL) and RS, from 65.75% (KTL) to 76.15% (KT5). The RAG and SAG contents of the cowpea starches ranged from 3.77% (KT7) to 6.79% (KT8) and from 18.56% (KT5) to 25.13% (KT8), respectively. The eGI of cowpea starches varied from 45.46±0.23 (KT5) to 48.14±0.38 (KT8). Conclusion: Cowpea starches have high SDS and RS contents and low GI, therefore they are suitable as a dietary carbohydrate alternative for the management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers.
  Nurfitri Ekantari , Eni Harmayani , Yudi Pranoto and Yustinus Marsono
  Background: Calcium is one of the important mineral as a constituent of bone in human, hence critically needed to prevent osteoporosis. Milk is considered as the main source of calcium, however, can not be consumed by those with lactose intolerant. On the other hand, Spirulina plat ensis , a species of microalgae is known for its high calcium level, particularly those cultivated with sea water, thus can be used as calcium source alternative. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability of calcium from Spirulina platensis and compared it with high calcium milk and calcium carbonate by using hypocalcemic Sprague Dawley rats fed with vitamin D-deficient diet. Methodology: Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups of six rats each. The rats were fed different diets for 8 weeks. The diets included standard diet (control), vitamin D-deficient diet (DVD), DVD+calcium carbonate (DVDCa), DVD+highcalcium milk (DVDMCa) and DVD+Spirulina diet (DVDSp). Results: The results showed that DVDSp group was able to retain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphates level in serum compared to control group (p>0.005). Femur bone integrity and bone mass density of hypocalcemic rats fed with S. platensis contained diet showed better results. Conclusion: It was concluded that bioavailability of calcium from Spirulina platensis was higher than those of milk and calcium carbonate.
  Veriani Aprilia , Agnes Murdiati , Pudji Hastuti and Eni Harmayani
  Objective: This study was conducted to describe the synthesis of carboxymethyl porang glucomannan (CPGM) and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The CPGM was synthesized by treating porang glucomannan (PGM) with sodium chloroacetate under basic conditions at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70°C) for different durations (20, 40 and 60 min). The CPGM products were then analyzed to determine what functional groups were present, the degree of substitution (DS), the water solubility, the zeta potential and the viscosity. Results: Carboxymethylation of the porang glucomannan was confirmed by the increase in the intensity of the carbonyl absorption peak in the fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Compared to the native porang glucomannan, the carboxymethylated porang glucomannan was more negatively charged and more water soluble but was less viscous. Both temperature and reaction time influenced the viscosity and water solubility, but the DS value was more influenced by reaction time than by temperature. Conclusion: Carboxymethylation of porang glucomannan yielded a more useful product than did native porang glucomannan. The increase in water solubility and decrease in viscosity made the product widely applicable in the food industry. The negatively charged polymer has the potential to interact with positively charged polymers to develop new products. Further research may be conducted to tune the reaction time to achieve certain properties that will suit additional needs.
  Veriani Aprilia , Agnes Murdiati , Pudji Hastuti and Eni Harmayani
  Background and Objective: Probiotic is functional food gave good effect to human body if it is consumed in adequate amount. Its viability becomes lower during processing, storing and delivering to the body. Therefore, it needs to be protected. Hydrogel formed from interaction between glucomannan and chitosan may protect it. The aims of this study were to evaluate the characteristics of hydrogel made from glucomannan and chitosan and its efficiency in encapsulating Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051. Materials and Methods: Hydrogel was prepared by extruding 0.5% w/v chitosan in 1% acetic acid to 0.5% w/v carboxymethyl glucomannan. Properties of hydrogel such as particle size, morphology Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectra and swelling ratio were measured. Encapsulation efficiencies were evaluated by enumerating encapsulated and unencapsulated cells. Data were analyzed using one way-ANOVA, then continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results: The result of the study showed that hydrogel formed using complex coacervation between glucomannan and chitosan had the spherical shape with the particle sizes around 1.09-2.31 μm. The new peak spectra at 1589 cm–1 confirmed that L. acidophilus was encapsulated in hydrogel matrix. The hydrogel respectively showed minimum and maximum swelling ratio at pH values of 5 and 8. Encapsulation efficiency was 66.1±3.0% when the cells were released in pH 8. It was not significantly different to the efficiency in pH 7. Enumerating unencapsulated cells provided lower encapsulation efficiency. Conclusions: L. acidophilus can be encapsulated in hydrogel using complex coacervation of glucomannan and chitosan. The low swelling ratio at lower pH provide better protection for the cell in the stomach, while the high swelling ratio at higher pH may be used to release the cell in small intestine. Further researches may be conducted to increase the encapsulation efficiency.
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