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Articles by Elsayed E. Hafez
Total Records ( 3 ) for Elsayed E. Hafez
  Ibrahim A.A. Adss , Muhammad A. Abdel-Gayed , William Botros and Elsayed E. Hafez
  Background: Tomato belongs to the Solanaceae family alongside other economically important crops such as pepper, eggplant and potato. Fruit rot disease caused by Alternaria solani is the most severe disease of tomato. Materials and Methods: Seven isolates of Alternaria solani were collected from different tomato fields in diverse localities of Al-Behiera Governorate. Pathogenicity tests of the seven isolates of A. solani were performed on fresh tomato fruits of the 1077 cv. The isolates differed in their virulence as evidenced by the diameters of rotted areas in the inoculated tomato fruits. Results: The isolates 7, 5 and 6 were highly virulent, while the isolates 2 were moderately virulent. The polygalacturonase enzyme activity was examined for all isolates and isolate 7 revealed the maximum activity (1.13 U mL–1 min–1), followed by isolates 5 (1.1 U mL–1 min–1), while the activity was low with isolate 1 (0.42 U mL–1 min–1), isolates 2 and 4 (0.6 and 0.7 U mL–1 min–1), respectively. On the other hand, both of isolates 3 and 6 gave a moderate activity (0.89 and 0.95 U mL–1 min–1), respectively. Genetic diversity was studied using RAPD-PCR and ISSR markers. Results exposed that inclusive genetic variations between the isolates were observed and the polymorphic percentage was ranged from 5.8-80%. While, the ISSR analysis grouped the 7 fungal isolates into two main clusters; the first cluster include isolates 1 and 2 but cluster two was divided into two groups; group one contains isolates 4-6 while group two include isolate 7. Conclusion: The polygalacturonase activity and ISSR gave the same results but the RAPD gave completely different results. That means, using functional gene for differentiation between plentiful closed isolates is more preferable than RAPD. Moreover, the ISSR-PCR is more confident than the RAPD-PCR.
  Adel A. El-Morsi , Samia A. Haroun , Ayat M. Hassan , Dalia G. Aseel and Elsayed E. Hafez
  Background and Objective: Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive virus of citrus which resulted in huge economic losses to citrus crop in Egypt and all over the world. We aim in this study to determine the presence, distribution and well characterize the virus in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A number of 77 naturally infected leaves and leaf petioles of citrus plants were collected from different cultivated areas in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The symptoms in infected plants included tristeza or quick decline, vein clearing and leaf cupping. Moreover, stem pitting of the trunk and branches of infected trees was observed. The leaves were collected and subjected to ELISA test. Results: The results revealed that about 84% of the collected samples with symptoms were positive. The ultra thin sections of CTV-infected leaves showed the presence of viral arrays, fibrous inclusions and accumulated cytoplasmic vesicles. Also, masses of electron-dense bodies were found between the cell wall and cell membrane. Accordingly, lipid accumulations and multi vesicular bodies were abundant in the cytoplasm. More effects were observed such as nuclear membrane invaginations and chloroplast degradation. Electron microscopy examination for the purified preparation (based on PEG precipitation and differential centrifugation) revealed the presence of filamentous virus-like particles with size about 2000×11 nm. Conclusion: The virus characterization has a vital role for rapid detection of CTV and prevents prevalence to other areas. The study proved the presence of tristeza virus in Egypt and the stockholder should take steps to control its distribution all over Egypt. The virus completely destroys the cell and it is highly distributed in all visited areas. Further studies should be carried out to find suitable tools for preventing the virus hassles for citrus production.
  Fahmy G. Elsaid , Ali A. Shati and Elsayed E. Hafez
  Aluminium (Al) affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance and several enzymes relevant to neurotoxicity. Natural products such as saffron and green coffee may have a pharmacological role in ameliorating the neurotoxicity induced by Al as a result of their antioxidant properties. The study aims to investigate the role of saffron and green coffee extracts in ameliorating the toxicity induced by aluminium chloride in the nervous tissues of rats. Sprague dawley rats were used in this study and divided into 6 groups: control group; Green coffee group (600 mg/kg b.w./day for 90 days); Saffron group,(200 mg/kg b.w./day; AlCl3 group,(40mg/kg b.w./day of AlCl3 for 90 days); AlCl3 plus green coffee group, co-administered with 40 mg/kg b.w./day of AlCl3 and green coffee extract at 600 mg/kg b.w./day; AlCl3 plus saffron group,(40 mg/kg b.w./day) of AlCl3 and aqueous saffron extract (200 mg/kg b.w./day). There was a decrease in the AChE activity in rats administered with AlCl3 for 90 days. Additionally, there was a decrease in the enzymatic antioxidant activities in both cerebral hemisphere and cerebellum of rats in AlCl3 group. At the molecular level, the expression of A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM10), acetylcholinesterase, P53, Bcl-2 (B cell lymphoma 2) and interleukins (IL-4 and IL-12) genes in AlCl3 group was changed. Both green coffee and saffron extracts could be used to attenuate the neurotoxic effects of AlCl3 as the imbalance in antioxidants/oxidants system and in some genes expression.
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