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Articles by E. S Ford
Total Records ( 3 ) for E. S Ford
  E. S Ford , M. M Bergmann , J Kroger , A Schienkiewitz , C Weikert and H. Boeing

Background  Our objective was to describe the reduction in relative risk of developing major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer associated with 4 healthy lifestyle factors among German adults.

Methods  We used data from 23 153 German participants aged 35 to 65 years from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition–Potsdam study. End points included confirmed incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. The 4 factors were never smoking, having a body mass index lower than 30 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), performing 3.5 h/wk or more of physical activity, and adhering to healthy dietary principles (high intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain bread and low meat consumption). The 4 factors (healthy, 1 point; unhealthy, 0 points) were summed to form an index that ranged from 0 to 4.

Results  During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 2006 participants developed new-onset diabetes (3.7%), myocardial infarction (0.9%), stroke (0.8%), or cancer (3.8%). Fewer than 4% of participants had zero healthy factors, most had 1 to 3 healthy factors, and approximately 9% had 4 factors. After adjusting for age, sex, educational status, and occupational status, the hazard ratio for developing a chronic disease decreased progressively as the number of healthy factors increased. Participants with all 4 factors at baseline had a 78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72% to 83%) lower risk of developing a chronic disease (diabetes, 93% [95% CI, 88% to 95%]; myocardial infarction, 81% [95% CI, 47% to 93%]; stroke, 50% [95% CI, –18% to 79%]; and cancer, 36% [95% CI, 5% to 57%]) than participants without a healthy factor.

Conclusion  Adhering to 4 simple healthy lifestyle factors can have a strong impact on the prevention of chronic diseases.

  E. S Ford , C Li , G Zhao , W. S Pearson and S. Capewell

Background— Cohorts consistently show that individuals with low levels of cardiovascular risk factors experience low rates of subsequent cardiovascular events. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and trends in low risk factor burden for cardiovascular disease among adults in the US population.

Methods and Results— We used data from adults 25 to 74 years of age who participated in 4 national surveys. We created an index of low risk from the following variables: not currently smoking, total cholesterol <5.17 mmol/L (<200 mg/dL) and not using cholesterol-lowering medications, systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg and not using antihypertensive medications, body mass index <25 kg/m2, and not having been previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The age-adjusted prevalence of low risk factor burden increased from 4.4% during 1971 to 1975 to 10.5% during 1988 to 1994 before decreasing to 7.5% during 1999 to 2004 (P for nonlinear trend <0.001). The patterns were similar for men and women, although the prevalence among women exceeded that among men in each survey (P<0.001 for each survey). In addition, whites had a significantly higher prevalence of low risk factor burden than blacks during each survey except during 1976 to 1980 (1971 to 1975, 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004: P<0.001; 1976 to 1980: P=0.154). Furthermore, a larger percentage of whites had a low risk factor burden than Mexican Americans during 1988 to 1994 (P<0.001) and 1999 to 2004 (P=0.001).

Conclusions— The prevalence of low risk factor burden for cardiovascular disease is low. The progress that had been made during the 1970s and 1980s reversed in recent decades.

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